New Proposals submitted.

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S.No. Number Start Date End Date Project Leader Category Type Core Area/ Sub Area Status/ Action/ Resubmission/ Reason for Cancel
         
1NML/IPSG/2017/2018/89632017-04-012018-03-31Rajesh Kumar RaiR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Mechanical Behaviour of Materialsreview/ submit

Title: High Temperature Mechanical Deformation and Fracture Behavior of Nickel Based Super-alloys (module III).

Abstract: The CM 247 alloy is designed primarily for directionally solidified turbine blade and vane applications. Directional solidification (DS) reduces the number of grain boundaries transverse to the primary loading axis, obtaining improved creep resistance. In DS blades the [001] crystallographic orientation is the preferred orientation along the blade principal axis. During service condition, these components are exposed to severe stress conditions and temperature fluctuation. These service conditions induce low cycle fatigue, creep and creep-fatigue damage in the material. The present proposal aims at studying creep-fatigue interaction behaviour of CM 247 DS nickel base superalloys at temperatures above 750oC and 850oC and studying the microstructural changes through extensive scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

2NML/IPSG/2018/2019/151252018-10-012019-09-30Chandra Veer SinghScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Mechanical Behaviour of Materialsreview/ submit

Title: Module 1: High Temperature Crack Growth of Cr-Mo Steels

Abstract: The growth of cracks strongly depends on the amount of the material in the vicinity of crack-tip coupled with the ductility of the material. Varied combinations of the two, give rise to distinct constraint conditions for a growing crack. The quantitative understanding of crack-growth under different constraint conditions is imperative to ensure the integrity of the components especially operating at higher temperatures. The experiments pertaining to study the effect of constraint wherein specimens of varying geometries and sizes would be explored. This work would provide insight into the relevant information required for the next generation of design codes and assessment procedures.

3NML/IPSG/2018/2019/271062018-10-012019-09-30Dr Krishnendu MukherjeeThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Materials Modelingreview/ submit

Title: Ab initio Modelling of deformation anisotropy in BCC ferrite using Density Functional Theory (DFT)

Abstract: In case of bcc metals the deformation occurs mainly by slip of screw dislocations in {110} and {112} planes. The Critically resolved shear stress (CRSS) of bcc metals depends on the angle between maximum resolved shear stress plane (MRSSP) and the slip plane (χ), the direction of slip, and the non-glide stress. These lead to anisotropy in deformation behaviour of the material. These anisotropies are know as Twinning/Anti-Twinning (T/AT) assymetry and assymetry due to non-glide stresses. As a consequence, the Peierls Barrier changes according to the loading direction (which in turn dictates the angle χ) and the value of non-glide stress. As, the dislocation has to climb the Peierls barrier to move from a stable location to the next stable location, the anisotropies discussed above relates to anisotropic deformation behaviour of bcc metals. In this work it is proposed to develop a Density Functional Theory (DFT) based ab initio model to quantify the Peierls Barrier, which can be correlated to the CRSS for movement of screw dislocations in bcc metals. The model is based on the Kohn-Sham density functional approach with appropriate exchange-correlation functional. The model will be implemented in open source/commercial DFT code to calculate the electronic structure and corresponding CRSS for bcc metals.

4NML/IPSG/2018/2019/297092018-10-012019-09-30SUNIL KUMARThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Microstructural Characterisationreview/ submit

Title: Estimation of various micro-structures and crystal dislocations during thermal and mechanical processing of steel: a molecular dynamics simulation investigation.

Abstract: It is important to precisely control the micro-structures of steel during thermal processing since they directly affects the properties of final products. In spite of considerable investigation from both fundamental and industrial viewpoints. It is still complex to control solidification micro-structures because it govern by many aspects of physical phenomena such as energy minimization and diffusion of various alloying elements. Moreover, it is extremely difficult to observe these processes directly by an experimental approach. Therefore, computational studies will be used to investigate the nature of the solidification process of steel. We will carried out extensive molecular dynamics simulations to explore micro structures at various steel composition and cooling/heating rates. Further, we will integrate results from MD simulations to both lower and higher length scale simulations. We believe that the results of this study will provide new understanding for the design and characterization of micro-structure of steel.

5NML/IPSG/2018/2019/323672018-10-012019-10-31Sheuli HoreThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Materials Modelingreview/ submit

Title: Phase field modelling of microstructure evolution of steel during deformation processing (approved project)

Abstract: The mechanical properties of a material such as strength and toughness are largely influenced by its microstructure. Therefore, the study of the evolution of microstructure in materials during manufacturing is of great technological importance. In the present investigation phase field models would be developed to simulate evolution of microstructure as a function of the processing conditions during deformation processing of steels. A challenge in the engineering-oriented phase field models is the construction of the free energy density at the interface between different phase constituents. This interface is classically considered as a geometric boundary without any internal structure and this would mean that the order parameters and solute concentration would be discontinuous at the interface. However, in this phase field modelling framework, the phase field order parameter and solute concentration have to be continuous functions throughout the whole system. The method is based on phenomenological equations of thermodynamics that are combined with free-energy functionals of Ginzburg-Landau type. In this method a diffuse interface description is employed where interfaces are represented implicitly by profiles of suitable order parameters instead of explicitly tracking moving boundaries as in the case of sharp interface model. The proposed model will attempt to characterize the evolution of microstructure under controlled operating conditions and the simulated microstructure will be validated with published experimental data. The model will be implemented using phase field simulation software (MICRESS) in conjunction with THERMOCALC interface.

6NML/IPSG/2018/2019/451432018-10-012019-09-30D.C.SauThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & Environment/ Pollution Mitigation in Metallurgical Industriesreview/ submit

Title: Studies on carbon dioxide(CO2) sequestration using steel plant slags

Abstract: Humanity faces many challenges. One of them is climate change due to increase of the greenhouse gases (mainly carbon dioxide).India is emitting approximately 3 Gt CO2 /Yr. To sequestrate carbon dioxide (CO2), industrial solid waste, such as steel making slags (mainly LD slag, Fe-Cr slag etc.) may be considered to be a suitable raw material due to its high content of calcium oxides. In addition, the utilization of steel making slags for carbon dioxide sequestration is beneficial for the iron and steel industries, where both slag and large quantity of CO2 is produced. Worldwide lot of researches are going on to reduce CO2 by various methods. One of the potential means to use slags to sequestrate CO2 and to produce precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) which is a valuable product. Both (pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical) routes will be tried out. In pyrometallurgical route, the carbon dioxide gas will be contacted with slag in a packed/fluidized bed reactor to sequestrate CO2. In hydrometallurgical route, calcium will be extracted selectively from the slag with aqueous solutions of ammonium salts in a reactor. After that, the calcium rich solution will react with CO2 in another reactor and to produce PCC. Various parameter’s (particle size, temperature, pressure, solvent concentration etc.) effect will be studied in a systematic way to establish the proof of concept.

7NML/IPSG/2018/2019/496282018-10-012019-09-30Premkumar MurugaiyanScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Alloy Developmentreview/ submit

Title: Development of High Induction amorphous based soft magnetic alloys-Module III

Abstract: Amorphous based Electrical steels are new class of soft magnetic materials with high electrical resistivity, low coercivity, low core loss and finds extensive applications as core material (transformers), stators motors, generators), Magneto static shielding, choke coils, actuators etc. The drawback of amorphous based material is its low magnetic induction (Bs) due to alloying additions for amorphous structure stabilization. The present investigation is aimed at alloy development, containing ferromagnetic Fe as base element in the range 80-85 atomic%. The present study involves in series of alloy modifications targeting optimal ratio of metalloid, grain growth inhibitor, nucleating elements and achieving magnetic induction greater than 1.5Tesla and good DC soft magnetic properties. Based on the theoretical results, Phosphorous and Boron will be the suitable metalloid for the high Fe system. Alloy optimization studies will be carried out to achieve optimal combination of high Ms, low Hc and 𝜆. The Alloy development also envisages partial crystallization and investigate the nanocrystalline effect on magnetization process. The obtained structural and soft magnetic results will be formulated in Random Anisotropy Model (RAM) to understand the compliance of developed alloys with existing model. The design and preparation of P containing Fe-rich alloys has been succesfully carried out in module-II. A total of 15 alloys in the form of melt-spun ribbons has been prepared. The module-III will be focused on controlled crystallization annealing and effect of magnetic field annealing on the soft magnetic properties of nano crystalline alloys.

8NML/IPSG/2018/2019/514712018-10-102019-10-09Shivendra SinhaScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive Metallurgy/ Hydrometallurgyreview/ submit

Title: Development of carbon based filler immobilized mixed matrix membrane for separation of Heavy Toxic Metals (Focus on Nuclear metals) from dilute effluent/leach solution-MODULE-1

Abstract: Presence of toxic and nuclear heavy metals in effluents of nuclear and metal industries poses a serious threat to the ecosystem. Thus, removal of these metals is of enormous importance vis-à-vis associated environmental risk. Moreover, this can also be looked as a potential feedstock for the recovery of these metals for meeting strategic needs. For instance, as of 2017, India generates around 6800 mW of nuclear energy, which is around 3% of total electricity consumption. India is set to expand its capacity with new six reactors with a combined capacity of 4.4 GWe. In this regard, fissile metals typically Uranium and Thorium have a major role to play. Thus, effluents containing nuclear and toxic metals provide a great opportunity in this regard. However, to recover these metals, it is essential to develop robust separation processes. Adsorption based process representing the class of such process, wherein mixed matrix membrane (MMM) based processes are of immense interest with regards to coupling adsorption by filler (typically functionalized nanomaterials) at high throughput with low energy requirement. This Ph.D. module will explore the development of carbon-based-filler immobilized mixed matrix membrane for separation of nuclear and toxic heavy metal from dilute effluent/leach solution. Carbon materials are chosen for this purpose because of high thermal, chemical, and radiation resistance than inorganic sorbents and inorganic exchange resins. In particular, this work will explore the preparation of carbon based filler, their preliminary efficacy towards adsorption of these metals followed by immobilization in compatible polymeric matrix membrane and subsequent performance evaluation using simulated dilute/leach solutions.

9NML/IPSG/2018/2019/566782018-10-012019-09-30Sheuli HoreThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Materials Modelingreview/resubmitted by PL

Title: Phase field modelling of microstructure evolution of steel during deformation processing

Abstract: The mechanical properties of a material such as strength and toughness are largely influenced by its microstructure. Therefore, the study of the evolution of microstructure in materials during manufacturing is of great technological importance. In the present investigation phase field models would be developed to simulate evolution of microstructure as a function of the processing conditions during deformation processing of steels. A challenge in the engineering-oriented phase field models is the construction of the free energy density at the interface between different phase constituents. This interface is classically considered as a geometric boundary without any internal structure and this would mean that the order parameters and solute concentration would be discontinuous at the interface. However, in this phase field modelling framework, the phase field order parameter and solute concentration have to be continuous functions throughout the whole system. The method is based on phenomenological equations of thermodynamics that are combined with free-energy functionals of Ginzburg-Landau type. In this method a diffuse interface description is employed where interfaces are represented implicitly by profiles of suitable order parameters instead of explicitly tracking moving boundaries as in the case of sharp interface model. The proposed model will attempt to characterize the evolution of microstructure under controlled operating conditions and the simulated microstructure will be validated with published experimental data. The model will be implemented using phase field simulation software (MICRESS) in conjunction with THERMOCALC interface.

10NML/IPSG/2018/2019/598792018-11-012019-10-31Dr. Jay ChakrabortyScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Advanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & Preview/ submit

Title: Graphene based high strength steel: Can graphene effectively block the dislocation movement ?

Abstract: In the present research proposal, 'Graphene', a 2D form of carbon has been proposed to strengthen a 3D bulk material like conventional steel. It is interesting to note that in recent years, elastic and plastic properties graphene has been exploited to make metal-graphene nanolayer composite coating (for details, please see Nature communication (2013) (DOI:10.1038/ncomms3114)). Fundamentally, all strengthening mechanisms aims to hinder the dislocation motion in the materials during plastic deformation. A graphen based composite steel has been proposed where we address question whether graphene effectively can block the dislocation movement ? Molecular dynamics simulation will be performed in order to understand the dislocation motion at the interface of steel and graphene. Experimental proof of concept will be carried out by making a sandwich of ferrite/graphene/ferrite composite steel assembly and then performing the mechanical testing of the whole assembly. Detailed X-ray diffraction (XRD) and crosssectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the composite steel will be performed in order to analyze the phase and dislocation microstructure at the ferrite/graphene interface.

11NML/IPSG/2018/2019/793772018-09-302019-10-31Minal ShahScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Alloy Developmentreview/ submit

Title: Study on Evolution of low temperature nanobainitic steel-Module 3

Abstract: With the increasing demand on energy saving, it is of necessity to develop high performance low cost steels having extraordinary high strength along with good toughness. The possibility of obtaining steels with nano size laths (20-50nm) of bainite by isothermal transformation treatment at low temperature is set forth. In this respect detail work has to be done to accelerate the kinetic of bainitic transformation by processing parameters and economical alloying elements. Role of Cu on mechanical properties of nanobainite steel has to be studied. Continuous cooled bainite has to studied to accelerate the kinetics. Modeling and Simulation of Isothermal and Continuous cooled bainite through Matlab has to be done.

12NML/IPSG/2018/2019/802972018-10-012019-09-30BIRAJ KUMAR SAHOOScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Alloy Developmentreview/ submit

Title: Development of Medium Mn, high Al low density high strength steel- MODULE 3

Abstract: There is a growing demand form the automotive sector for high strength light weight steel. High Mn(25-30%) and high Al(12-14%) TWIP or SIMPLEX steels having high strength and formability with lower density have been developed but owing to high Mn content, it adds hugely to the cost. It also poses manufacturing problems at industrial scale and thus not produced commercially in large scale. The density of automotive grade steel is around 7.8g/cc but with every 1% addition of Al there is a decrease in density of 1.3%. So, here lies a scope to develop a high strength steel with high Al in range of 8-12% but keeping the Mn content limited in the range of 7-12 %. With such steel, a density of 6.8-7.0 g/cc (i.e. ~10% reduction in density) can be achieved. The proposal aims to develop such steel by suitable alloy design and critically controlling the subsequent thermo-mechanical processing. The microstructure of the developed steel would be combination of ferrite, austenite with fine scale precipitation of K-carbide(FeMn)3AlC and/or B2 ordered phases(FeMnAl). The inter-critical annealing schedule after cold rolling plays a significant role for the development of the above microstructure. The precipitation of brittle intermetallics would be controlled to obtain very fine nano scale precipitation such that it would add to the strength, rather deteriorating the properties. In continuation of the module-2 in which the precipitation behavior of the intermetallics in the ferrite-austenite matrix with different heat treatment schedule was investigated, the proposal in MODULE-3 aims to assess the mechanical property of the alloy and investigate the deformation mechanism.

13NML/IPSG/2018/2019/924672018-10-012019-09-30Rashmi SinglaScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & Environment/ Metallurgical/Mineral Waste Utilisationreview/ submit

Title: Development of inorganic-organic hybrid geopolymers (Module-I)

Abstract: Geopolymer based materials show excellent mechanical properties, thermal stability, freeze-thaw, acid and fire resistance, long term durability etc. Above all, the use of geopolymers can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions up to 80% in comparison to traditional cement based materials. However, their brittle mechanical behavior and consequently low fracture toughness limits their extensive applications as structural material. This problem can be overcome through the development of superior composite materials/hybrids tailored for the intended applications in a specific manner. Although some preliminary work has been carried out but most of the studies were just based on physical blending of the organic and the inorganic phases. The determining factor of such composites lies in the chemical compatibility between the two phases which has not been given due consideration. Thus, the outcome of the present work would be an optimized processing route and a suitable organic polymer for producing an inorganic-organic hybrid geopolymer having significantly enhanced compressive strength and fracture toughness with respect to the metakaolin-based inorganic geopolymer matrix.

14NML/IPSG/2018/2019/956452018-10-012019-09-30Swati PramikScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive Metallurgy/ Hydrometallurgyreview/ submit

Title: Rational Design of Solvent System: A Novel Approach for Recycling Metals from leach solution of Cathode Materials of Lithium-ion Batteries by solvent extraction. (Module I: Studies on physico-chemical behavior of amines (pri, sec, tert and quert amines) and organophosphoric compounds (Phosphoric, phosphonic and phosphinic acids) for the solvent extraction and separation of Li, Co, Ni and Mn.)

Abstract: There are several studies on the recycling of LIBs based on hydrometallurgical processes that involve leaching with concentrated acids followed by solvent extraction, ion exchange, or selective precipitation. However, the separation of Co(II), Ni(II) and Mn(II) by liquid-liquid extraction is still difficult. The versatility of the solvent extraction technology combined with precipitation processes can definitively reply to this goal provided that new selective and efficient solvent systems are designed. In this project, we will focus on developing new extraction solvents based on the use of a mixture of amines and organophosphorus acids for selective recovery of Co, Ni, Mn (extraction and stripping stages). The concept of this project for developing new extraction solvents relies on the use of a mixture of two extracting functions in the extraction solvent, which are active or non-active depending on the operating conditions. Cationic exchangers bear acidic function which are active at pH greater than the pKa value while amine extractants can extract metals provided that they exist as anionic species, i.e. at high sulfate or chloride concentration in the leach solution. Therefore, the concept introduced could be used to separate Co(II), Ni(II) and Mn(II) as they form both cationic and anionic species depending on the pH and chloride concentration of aqueous solution. Effect of structural changes of both amines and organophosphorus extractants towards extraction of Li, Co, Ni and Mn and physico-chemistry involved in the liquid-liquid extraction will be evaluated by correlating extraction and separation with pka, pkb and aggregation behavior of extractants in different diluents systems.

15NML/IPSG/2018/2019/971832018-10-012019-10-31SNEHASHISH TRIPATHYScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Alloy Developmentreview/ submit

Title: Study of wear and RCF mechanism in high carbon nano-pearlitic rail steel.

Abstract: The service life of rail steels is dictated by the wear and rolling contact fatigue resistance, which further depend upon the hardness and the toughness of the steel. Both of these properties being inversely dependent upon the interlamellar spacing of pearlite, the refining of pearlitic microstructure becomes an important aspect in the rail steel processing. The previous two modules thus aimed at attempting for nano –pearlitic microstructure in the hypereutectoid regime and evaluation of its mechanical and tribological properties. The promising results in terms of high hardness and excellent work hardening obtained in the previous modules lead to the further evaluation of the developed alloy for Rolling Contact Fatigue resistance. The synergistic effect of high hardness and good work hardening in the developed pearlitic grade is expected to enhance the RCF resistance of the developed grade. Therefore, in continuation with the previous module the present module would focus upon the Rolling Contact Fatigue evaluation of the designed alloy. This would also involve detailed microstructural characterization to detect the deformation behaviour and failure mechanisms in the material.