New Proposals submitted.

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S.No. Number Start Date End Date Project Leader Category Type Core Area/ Sub Area Status/ Action/ Resubmission/ Reason for Cancel
         
1NML/IPSG///99849Premkumar Murugaiyan/ proposal/

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2NML/IPSG/2016/2016/801692016-02-022016-02-24Manoj K. MohantaR&DExpress Track(3 Months)Mineral Processing/ Beneficiationproposal/ save

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3NML/IPSG/2016/2016/897242016-08-032016-08-31RACHIT GHOSHR&DExpress Track(3 Months)Materials Engineering/ Surface Chemistryproposal/ save

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4NML/IPSG/2016/2017/107032016-11-172017-11-17Dr Dayanand PaswanR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive Metallurgy/ Pyrometallurgyproposal/reopened for edit

Title: Development of Hybrid Fuel Briquette from Lean Grade Coal and Torrefied Lignocellulosic Woody Biomass

Abstract: The present study is aimed at developing hybrid fuel briquette from lean grade coal and torrefied Lignocellulosic Woody Biomass (LWB). Coal samples were collected from Okaba (established mine: N07 30´ E07 42´) and Odagbo (virgin mine: N06 12´ E06 28´) fields in Kogi State, Nigeria. Tectona grandis (Teak wood) and Gmelina arborea (Melina wood) were collected from Agbamu village farm (N08 7ʹ E04 52ʹ) in Kwara State, Nigeria. Characterization of coal and LWB will be carried out: there is no literacy on the type, properties and behavior of coal from Odagbo field. LWB are hydrophilic in nature, contains low energy density and high volatile matter thus, torrefaction process will be used to improve the energy content, reduce the volatile matters and make it hydrophobic. For torrefaction process, parameters such as torrefaction temperature (TT), resident time (RT) and particles sizes (PS) would be varied to obtain optimum char yield and properties from LWB. Characterization of torrefied LWB (TLWB) would be carried out and optimum parameters would then be used for torrefaction of two LWB. The output will be densified with coal. Densification will be carried out under various conditions such as hybrid ratio, pressure, binding agent and die temperature. Information catalogue for coal in Odagbo field would be developed. Optimized parameters for torrefaction process of LWB will be obtained. Hybrid fuels with little or no combustion effluents such SOx NOx, and COx is expected at the end of densification process. Hybrid fuel briquettes with high energy density, good mechanical properties such as low crack formation, hardness, compressive strength and hydrophobic in nature would be developed. Optimized process parameters for densification of coal and torrefied woody biomass would be obtained.

5NML/IPSG/2016/2017/166772016-10-012017-09-30SUNIL KUMARR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Materials Modelingreview/ submit

Title: Molecular dynamic simulation of geopolymers for characterization of mechanical properties at elevated temperatures

Abstract: Geopolymer technology has a potential to stimulate sustainable development of urban societies for decades to come. Despite their fundamental importance for material science, the microstructure of geopolymer precursors has not been elucidated; especially the composition dependence of structure, dynamics of the system and mechanical response. A molecular dynamic simulation model will be developed incorporating the phenomenological aspects of classical molecular dynamics (MD) which solves pertinent Newtonian equations of motion and allows time-dependent movement of atomic and molecular system to be calculated around an equilibrium configuration. First, a molecular mechanics based run will be attempted to obtain minima locations on the force field; then, these locations lead to the equilibrium structure of the molecular system. After the minimization step is completed, MD will provides the dynamics of the molecular system around that equilibrium structure by solving Newton’s second law. The present study is an attempt to use molecular dynamic approach to study geopolymer at elevated temperatures using computer simulations with varying concentrations of silica and alumina species to characterize the mechanical properties. Newton’s equations of motion for each atom will be solved numerically using the Verlet algorithm in this work and the predictions will be validated with literature data.

6NML/IPSG/2016/2017/174332016-10-012017-09-30RACHIT GHOSHR&DFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & Environment/ Metallurgical/Mineral Waste Utilisationproposal/ submit

Title: Studies of geopolymer concrete using synergistically fly ash and bottom ash (Module-III).

Abstract: The work carried out in the last module i.e, Module-II includes pre-processing of raw material, characterizing the raw materials, studied the properties using non-destructive tests and one paper submitted titled, “Comparison of strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) for different alkalination of geopolymer concrete cured at ambient temperature.” Performance at elevated temperature is studied and draft paper titled, “Effect of elevated temperatures on flyash based geopolymer concrete and its thermal behavior.” is ready. In the current proposed module focus will be on characterizing the geopolymer concrete, continuation of durability test and characterizing after durability test of geopolymer concrete samples. Geopolymer Concrete manufactured using different quality fly ashes will be evaluated for the mechanical properties such as unit weight, setting time, workability, compressive strength, tensile strength, etc.This is aimed to study the variation in properties of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete (GPC) curing without elevated heat. It is also proposed to carry out field trials of geopolymer concrete and study its performance.

7NML/IPSG/2016/2017/243782016-10-012017-09-30Lakshmi sureshR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Alloy Developmentreview/ submit

Title: Development of Fe based High Entropy Alloys and its characterization study for cryogenic applications.

Abstract: High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are alloys with equal or nearly equal quantities of five or more metals. These multi-principal alloys mostly form stable disordered solid solutions due to the high entropy of mixing, eliminating the formation of intermetallic phases and ordered phases, predominantly at high temperatures. For a material to serve in potential applications, the various deformation mechanisms operational at different service temperatures and conditions need to be investigated. Scope of the present work includes melting of Fe40Mn40Co10Cr10 alloy at 15Kg scale in vacuum induction furnace, forging and rough rolling of the ingot, as cast microstructural characterisation through optical, SEM and phase and rietwelt analysis through XRD, mechanical property evaluation and deformation mechanism determination. Work elements in the project will proceed in two major steps 1. Mechanical properties are evaluated through continuous tensile tests, impact testing at cryogenic and room temperature and Fracture toughness studies. 2. Deformation behaviour is assessed by conducting TEM studies on interrupted tensile test samples from different strain levels identified from continuous tensile tests at cryogenic, room and high temperatures for correlating the deformation mechanism with material properties. Motive is to establish a clear correlation between the activation of different planar defects and different modes of plasticity , tested at different temperatures.

8NML/IPSG/2016/2017/258902016-10-012017-09-30SNEHASHISH TRIPATHYR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Advanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & Pproposal/ submit

Title: Study of wear and RCF mechanism in high carbon nano-pearlitic rail steel.

Abstract: The service life of rail steels is dictated by the wear and rolling contact fatigue resistance, which further depend upon the hardness and the toughness of the steel. Both of these properties being inversely dependent upon the interlamellar spacing of pearlite, the refining of pearlitic microstructure becomes an important aspect in the rail steel processing. The limit of the interlamellar spacing which can be obtained industrially is considered to be  0.1μm, the corresponding hardness and toughness of which do not provide adequate wear and RCF resistance especially under increased load and speeds. The present work therefore aims at designing of nano - pearlitic high carbon rail steel with interlamellar spacing in the range of 0.07 – 0.1μm (in the head portion) and increased volume fraction of cementite in pearlite, so as to get higher toughness and hardness. The outcome of the present work would be the alloy chemistry and optimized process parameters for producing fully pearlitic microstructure with fine interlamellar spacing and higher volume fraction of cementite (owing to the high carbon content of the steel).

9NML/IPSG/2016/2017/261112016-03-012017-03-01Rajesh Kumar RaiR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Mechanical Behaviour of Materialsproposal/ save

Title: High Temperature Mechanical Deformation and Fracture Behavior of SU 247 Nickel Base Superalloy.

Abstract: The CM 247 DS is a compositional modified derivative of MAR M 247, particularly designed for high temperature applications in gas turbine engine. During service condition, these components are exposed to severe stress conditions and temperature fluctuation. These service conditions induce low cycle fatigue, creep and creep-fatigue damage in the material. The present proposal aims at studying isothermal LCF, creep rupture and creep-fatigue interaction behavior of CM 247 DS nickel base superalloys at temperatures above 600oC and studying the microstructural changes through extensive scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These materials are used in low pressure turbine vane (LPTV), high pressure turbine vane (HPTV), high pressure turbine rotor (HPTR) blades and low pressure turbine rotor (LPTR) blades.

10NML/IPSG/2016/2017/298922016-10-012017-09-30SNEHASHISH TRIPATHYR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Advanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & Pproposal/ save

Title: Study of wear and RCF mechanism in high carbon nano-pearlitic rail steel.

Abstract: The service life of rail steels is dictated by the wear and rolling contact fatigue resistance, which further depend upon the hardness and the toughness of the steel. Both of these properties being inversely dependent upon the interlamellar spacing of pearlite, the refining of pearlitic microstructure becomes an important aspect in the rail steel processing. The limit of the interlamellar spacing which can be obtained industrially is considered to be  0.1μm, the corresponding hardness and toughness of which do not provide adequate wear and RCF resistance especially under increased load and speeds. The present work therefore aims at designing of nano - pearlitic high carbon rail steel with interlamellar spacing in the range of 0.07 – 0.1μm (in the head portion) and increased volume fraction of cementite in pearlite, so as to get higher toughness and hardness. The outcome of the present work would be the alloy chemistry and optimized process parameters for producing fully pearlitic microstructure with fine interlamellar spacing and higher volume fraction of cementite (owing to the high carbon content of the steel).

11NML/IPSG/2016/2017/316342016-09-302017-03-31Maitreyee BhattacharyaR&DFast track(6 months)Extractive Metallurgy/ Pyrometallurgyproposal/ save

Title: Recovery of Iron from Mill Scale by the Process of Segregation Roasting

Abstract: The proposed work is to develop a pyro-metallurgical process based on segregation roasting technique as an alternative approach to extract metallic iron from the mill scale. The process comprises segregation roasting of mill scale in the presence coke, alkali chloride and additive followed by screening and magnetic separation. Finally the metallic iron is separated from the associated gangue by the magnetic separation process. In this investigation, thermodynamic calculation and kinetics of the process of various parameters including roasting temperature, roasting time, amount of alkali chloride, and particle size are to be studied. The process is techno-economically viable and sustainable.

12NML/IPSG/2016/2017/42692016-10-012017-09-30Premkumar MurugaiyanR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Alloy Developmentproposal/ save

Title: Development of High Induction amorphous based soft magnetic alloys

Abstract: Amorphous based Electrical steels are new class of soft magnetic materials with high electrical resistivity, low coercivity, low core loss and finds extensive applications as core material (transformers), stators motors, generators), Magneto static shielding, choke coils, actuators etc. The drawback of amorphous based material is its low magnetic induction (Bs) due to alloying additions for amorphous structure stabilization. The present investigation is aimed at alloy development, containing ferromagnetic Fe as base element in the range 80-85 atomic%. The present study involves in series of alloy modifications targeting optimal ratio of metalloid, grain growth inhibitor, nucleating elements and achieving magnetic induction greater than 1.5Tesla and good DC soft magnetic properties. The Alloy development also envisages partial crystallization and investigate the nanocrystalline effect on magnetization process. The obtained structural and soft magnetic results will be formulated in Random Anisotropy Model (RAM) to understand the compliance of developed alloys with existing model.

13NML/IPSG/2016/2017/435162016-09-302017-03-31Maitreyee BhattacharyaR&DFast track(6 months)Extractive Metallurgy/ Pyrometallurgyreview/ submit

Title: Recovery of Iron from Mill Scale by the Process of Segregation Roasting

Abstract: The proposed work is to develop a pyro-metallurgical process based on segregation roasting technique as an alternative approach to extract metallic iron from the mill scale. The process comprises segregation roasting of mill scale in the presence coke, alkali chloride and additive followed by screening and magnetic separation. Finally the metallic iron is separated from the associated gangue by the magnetic separation process. In this investigation, thermodynamic calculation and kinetics of the process of various parameters including roasting temperature, roasting time, amount of alkali chloride, and particle size are to be studied. The process is techno-economically viable and sustainable.

14NML/IPSG/2016/2017/477542016-10-012017-09-30BIRAJ KUMAR SAHOOR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Alloy Developmentproposal/ save

Title: Development of Medium Mn, high Al low density high strength steel- MODULE 1

Abstract: There is a growing demand form the automotive sector for high strength light weight steel. High Mn(25-30%) and high Al(12-14%) TWIP or SIMPLEX steels having high strength and formability with lower density have been developed but owing to high Mn content, it adds hugely to the cost. It also poses manufacturing problems at industrial scale and thus not produced commercially in large scale. The density of automotive grade steel is around 7.8g/cc but with every 1% addition of Al there is a decrease in density of 1.3%. So, here lies a scope to develop a high strength steel with high Al in range of 8-12% but keeping the Mn content limited in the range of 3-7%. With such steel, a density of 6.8-7.0 g/cc (i.e. ~10% reduction in density) can be achieved. The proposal aims to develop such steel by suitable alloy design and critically controlling the subsequent thermo-mechanical processing. The microstructure of the developed steel would be combination of ferrite, austenite with fine scale precipitation of K-carbide(FeMn)3AlC and/or B2 ordered phases(FeMnAl). The inter-critical annealing schedule after cold rolling plays a significant role for the development of the above microstructure. The precipitation of brittle intermetallics would be controlled to obtain very fine nano scale precipitation such that it would add to the strength, rather deteriorating the properties. The proposal in the module-1, aims to investigate and understand the phase transformation behavior of the alloy, the kinetics of solute (C, Mn) partitioning during inter-critical annealing, the precipitation behavior of the intermetallics and the subsequent microstructure evolution.

15NML/IPSG/2016/2017/523362016-10-012017-09-30BIRAJ KUMAR SAHOOR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Alloy Developmentproposal/ submit

Title: Development of Medium Mn, high Al low density high strength steel- MODULE 1

Abstract: There is a growing demand form the automotive sector for high strength light weight steel. High Mn(25-30%) and high Al(12-14%) TWIP or SIMPLEX steels having high strength and formability with lower density have been developed but owing to high Mn content, it adds hugely to the cost. It also poses manufacturing problems at industrial scale and thus not produced commercially in large scale. The density of automotive grade steel is around 7.8g/cc but with every 1% addition of Al there is a decrease in density of 1.3%. So, here lies a scope to develop a high strength steel with high Al in range of 8-12% but keeping the Mn content limited in the range of 3-7%. With such steel, a density of 6.8-7.0 g/cc (i.e. ~10% reduction in density) can be achieved. The proposal aims to develop such steel by suitable alloy design and critically controlling the subsequent thermo-mechanical processing. The microstructure of the developed steel would be combination of ferrite, austenite with fine scale precipitation of K-carbide(FeMn)3AlC and/or B2 ordered phases(FeMnAl). The inter-critical annealing schedule after cold rolling plays a significant role for the development of the above microstructure. The precipitation of brittle intermetallics would be controlled to obtain very fine nano scale precipitation such that it would add to the strength, rather deteriorating the properties. The proposal in the module-1, aims to investigate and understand the phase transformation behavior of the alloy, the kinetics of solute (C, Mn) partitioning during inter-critical annealing, the precipitation behavior of the intermetallics and the subsequent microstructure evolution.

16NML/IPSG/2016/2017/663152016-09-012017-08-31RAJESH K MINJR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive Metallurgy/ Pyrometallurgyreview/ submit

Title: Development of a process to produce Pre-reduced Ferro chromium pellets in vertical kiln furnace

Abstract: The production of high carbon ferro chromium ferro alloy in sub-merged arc furnace is very high energy intensive process. The specific power consumption for the production of high carbon ferro chromium is approximately 5000 kWH/ton. The valuable electrical power energy is used for the production of ferro alloy and also carbon emission is very high during power generation. Roughly 16-18 % of heat energy is available in the form of electrical power to produce ferro alloy. Rest 82-85% heat is lost due to power generation, transmission loss and power efficiency of the Submerged arc furnace. The effort to use coal energy directly for the pre reduction of chromite ore pellets in vertical kiln furnace. The efficiency of vertical kiln furnace is fairly high compared to all type of metallurgical furnace. The efficiency of vertical kiln furnace is depend on height, mode of operation and operation parameters. The scheme of the project is as follows: (a) Grinding and crushing of chromite ore (b) Characterization of raw materials (c) pre-reduction of chromite ore pellets (d) Smelting of Pre-reduced pellet (e) Techno economical feasibility study

17NML/IPSG/2016/2017/683612016-11-172017-11-16Adeleke Adekunle AkanniR&DFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & Environment/ Green Metallurgical Technologiesproposal/ submit

Title: Development of Hybrid Fuel Briquette from Lean Grade Coal and Torrefied Lignocellulosic Woody Biomass

Abstract: The present study is aimed at developing hybrid fuel briquette from lean grade coal and torrefied Lignocellulosic Woody Biomass (LWB). Coal samples were collected from Okaba (established mine: N07 30´ E07 42´) and Odagbo (virgin mine: N06 12´ E06 28´) fields in Kogi State, Nigeria. Tectona grandis (Teak wood) and Gmelina arborea (Melina wood) were collected from Agbamu village farm (N08 7ʹ E04 52ʹ) in Kwara State, Nigeria. Characterization of coal and LWB will be carried out: there is no literacy on the type, properties and behavior of coal from Odagbo field. LWB are hydrophilic in nature, contains low energy density and high volatile matter thus, torrefaction process will be used to improve the energy content, reduce the volatile matters and make it hydrophobic. For torrefaction process, parameters such as torrefaction temperature (TT), resident time (RT) and particles sizes (PS) would be varied to obtain optimum char yield and properties from LWB. Characterization of torrefied LWB (TLWB) would be carried out and optimum parameters would then be used for torrefaction of two LWB. The output will be densified with coal. Densification will be carried out under various conditions such as hybrid ratio, pressure, binding agent and die temperature. Information catalogue for coal in Odagbo field would be developed. Optimized parameters for torrefaction process of LWB will be obtained. Hybrid fuels with little or no combustion effluents such SOx NOx, and COx is expected at the end of densification process. Hybrid fuel briquettes with high energy density, good mechanical properties such as low crack formation, hardness, compressive strength and hydrophobic in nature would be developed. Optimized process parameters for densification of coal and torrefied woody biomass would be obtained.

18NML/IPSG/2016/2017/780672016-09-012017-10-31Minal ShahR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Alloy Developmentproposal/ submit

Title: Study on Evolution of low temperature nanobainitic steel-Module 1

Abstract: With the increasing demand on energy saving, it is of necessity to develop high performance low cost steels having extraordinary high strength along with good toughness. The possibility of obtaining steels with nano size laths (20-50nm) of bainite by isothermal transformation treatment at low temperature is set forth. Such steel requires (1) Increasing the driving force for the transformation,(2) lowering of the transformation temperature to refine the bainitic microstructure,(3) acceleration of the transformation speed and (4) Lowering the Ms temperature. Addition of high 0.8-1.2 wt% of carbon enable to form nanobainite by lowering the Bs temperature and Ms temperature, but such high carbon alloys has extremely slow kinetics. In this respect detail work has to be done to accelerate the kinetic of bainitic transformation by processing parameters and economical alloying elements. Low carbon nano bainite alloys has to be developed with much greater kinetics so that the product can be used in wear resistance and other application without facing the problem of weldability. Role of Aluminium has to be studied on kinetics and Bs temperature on nanobainitic transformation so as to produce light weight high strength steels for wear and other applications.

19NML/IPSG/2016/2017/809132016-10-012017-09-30Dr. K. L. SahooR&DFull tenure(1 year)Others/ CSIR-800proposal/ submit

Title: Coke based brass melting furnace for brass and bell metal artisans of West Bengal and Odisha.

Abstract: In the previous year (2015-16) through the project OLP-0249, CSIR-NML has transferred 2 number of energy efficient brass melting technology to (i) Yugantar Bharati, Ranchi, Jharkhand (In October 2015) and (ii) West Bengal Khadi & Village Industries Board, MSME & T Dept. Govt. of W.B (In January 2016).Subsequently, CSIR-NML installed and commissioned three furnaces last year at three different places, namely (i) Namkum, Ranchi, (ii) Bikna, Bankura Dist. (iii) Dariapur, Burdwan Dist. CSIR-NML also conducted several training cum demonstration programme to the artisans and District Information centre officials. They have shown their interest for the know-how. In this project it is proposed to transfer technology to other organization and to install more number of furnaces in West Bengal and Odisha. It is also proposed to study the feasibility of application of know-how in other districts of Odisha, mainly in Khurda district and other districts of West Bengal.

20NML/IPSG/2016/2017/828342016-10-012017-09-30Surla RameshR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Mechanical Behaviour of Materialsreview/ submit

Title: In-line Monitoring Of Fatigue Crack Propagation Using Ultrasonic Phased Array Technique

Abstract: The present project attempts for in-line monitoring and measurement of the fatigue crack growth in a three point bending specimen. Conventionally, the growth measured by crack mouth opening method. which does not provide any volumetric information. The ultrasonic phased array technique gives the information about the complete volumetric crack profile. The technique has been used offline by many workers. In the present study, the ultrasonic phased array technique will be used for in situ evaluation of fatigue crack growth in structural steel.

21NML/IPSG/2016/2017/939872016-10-012017-09-30SUNIL KUMARR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral Processing/ Process Modelingproposal/ save

Title: Molecular dynamic simulation to characterize rapid solidification behavior and structure-property functionality of AluminiumMagnesium alloy

Abstract: Al-alloys are well known for their use as light-weight components in engineering applications, particularly within the automotive industries, due to their high wear resistance and low thermal expansion. Rapid solidification processing (RSP) affects the microstructure and phase equilibrium and offers the following advantages, namely, refinement of microstructure, extension of solid solubility, increased chemical homogeneity, precipitation of non-equilibrium crystalline phases and formation of amorphous phases. A molecular dynamic (MD) simulation model will be developed based on Newtonian mechanics and Velocity-Verlet algorithm to study of dynamic behavior atomic structure of Al-Mg system during RSP. Depending upon the simulation environment and computational resources, different numbers of atoms will be considered in a 3-D simulation box with periodic boundary conditions. The structure and properties of the system will be examined using radial distribution function (RDF) and mean square distance (MSD) of Al-Mg atomistic system as function of temperature at different cooling rates during RSP.

22NML/IPSG/2016/2017/943822016-10-012017-09-30V.RajinikanthR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Microstructural Characterisationproposal/ submit

Title: Correlation of stereological parameters with mechanical properties of micro alloyed steels: Module IV: Microstructure , Texture and Mechanical property evolution.

Abstract: Acicular ferrite (AF)/ bainite (B) is often reported as the most desirable microstructure for development of high strength pipeline grade micro alloyed steels. However the mechanism of its formation is explained mostly with respect to microstructure evolution from inclusions during welding and claims are being made that it is intragranular variant of bainite. There are no proper systematic investigations towards: (i) resolving the above claim and (ii) development of desired fractions of acicular ferrite in different micro structural combinations with other micro structural constituents like retained austenite, M-A, polygonal ferrite, martensite, bainite etc., in a thermo mechanical processing schedule. Therefore, the objective of the proposed investigation is aimed at Quantifying the microstructural constituents including texture evolution and correlate it to the processing conditions and mechanical properties of the given microalloyed steel. The desired outcome is the effect of microstructural constituents on the mechanical properties. The microstructure will be evaluated in detail based on EBSD and TEM studies. The misorientation angle distribution will be used as a basis for defining the acicular ferrite microstructure based on results from previous module.

23NML/IPSG/2016/2017/992352016-10-012017-09-30Dr. Shantanu V. MadgeR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Alloy Developmentreview/ submit

Title: Solidification texture in electrical steels.

Abstract: Electrical steels (Fe-Si) are important for industrial applications (transformers, motors, generators) arising from their soft magnetic properties, and this is an area of current interest to CSIR-NML. The current project will target texture development in relatively novel processing routes like thin strip and planar flow casting (or melt-spinning) -- processes already used for non-oriented (CRNO) grades of electrical steels. Preliminary results have shown the formation of <100> fiber texture in as-cast thin sheets, expected to lead to superior magnetic properties than CRNO grades. We will now focus on (1) finding whether the <100> texture can be further enhanced through minor alloying additions to the steel; (2) fabrication of larger foils of electrical steels, so that magnetic properties can be correctly measured and compared with existing grades; (3) investigating the stability of the microstructure (hence properties) against low-temperature ageing.

24NML/IPSG/2017/2017/511532017-04-012017-09-30D.C.SauR&DFast track(6 months)Extractive Metallurgy/ Pyrometallurgyproposal/ submit

Title: Scale up of the developed process for conversion of hematite fines to magnetite using CNG (compressed natural gas)

Abstract: High purity hematite is generated during the pickling operation at Tata Steel. There is a need to convert it into a value added product. A simple process which can be easily adopted in the plant and use of wastes streams is desirable. To develop a process to convert hematite powder into magnetite (Fe3O4) suitable for application as heavy media application. The magnetite (Fe3O4) system has become of long-standing interest due to its rich variety of application in the industry as pigment, precursor for magnetic field and heavy media separation agent. It is of great interest to study alternative methods of synthesis to reduce costs of preparation and improve the rate and quality of the final products. Several chemical methods have been proposed to synthesize magnetite. The direct reduction of hematite by gaseous reductants is an industrially important reaction. The reaction proceeds through the formation of Fe3O4 if the temperature is below 5750C since wustite phase is unstable under these conditions. In this work, we will develop a process at 10 kg scale for the conversion of hematite to magnetite of 90 % or more purity using CNG in a gas fired reactor.

25NML/IPSG/2017/2017/606762017-04-012017-09-30R&DExpress Track(3 Months)Extractive Metallurgy/ Pyrometallurgyproposal/ save

Title: Improvement in Development of Magnesium Metal Production Technology and DPR preparation for the scale-up industrially viable project

Abstract: Magnesium is the lightest structural metal which has applications in aerospace, automotive, desulfurization of steel etc. including the strategic applications in defense and atomic energy. CSIR-NML has been undergoing on the development of the Electro-thermal batch technology for producing sponge magnesium 35-40kg in one batch from the reduction of calcined dolomite by ferro-silicon at a temperature of 1500-1600C in the presence of calcined bauxite under a vacuum of 10-20 mbar under 12th FYP. Dolomite is calcined at a temperature of 1200-1300C in a available diesel fired Rotary Kiln. Ratio of calcined dolomite, ferro-silicon and bauxite is used in the ratio of 5.6:1:1 to produce the sponge magnesium. The progress on the development of Electro-thermal batch Mg-producing technology consists of processing the raw material at a pilot scale of 300-450 kg per batch producing ~40kg sponge Mg. As of now, 17 campaigns have been carried out towards the pilot plant standardization with respect to the functioning of each and every component and establishing of the process parameters at the mentioned scale, process parameters optimization, fine tuning of the process parameters with improved yield and purity etc. The 18th Campaign is underway. At this stage of pilot scale development it requires reproducibility of results and investigation on still higher rate of charging raw material >13.5kg/h with higher power pumping rate during the reproducibility of the campaigns to further lowering of the power consumption and higher productivity. In view of the mentioned objectives it is proposed to carry out 3-5 more campaigns including detailed project report (DPR) preparation for processing the next higher pilot scale of 1T raw material/120kg Mg working in semi-continuous mode with the end product in the form of billets after flux refining and casting.

26NML/IPSG/2017/2017/662402017-04-012017-09-30Manoj KumarR&DFast track(6 months)Extractive Metallurgy/ Pyrometallurgyproposal/ submit

Title: Improvement in Development of Magnesium Metal Production Technology and DPR preparation for scale up pilot plant for industrial application.

Abstract: Magnesium is the lightest structural metal which has applications in aerospace, automotive, de-sulfurization of steel etc. including the strategic applications in defence and atomic energy. CSIR-NML has been undergoing on the development of the Electro-thermal batch technology for producing sponge magnesium 35-40 kg in one batch from the reduction of calcined dolomite by ferro-silicon at a temperature of 1500-1600C in the presence of calcined bauxite under a vacuum of 10-20 mbar under 12th FYP. Dolomite is calcined at a temperature of 1200-1300C in a available diesel fired Rotary Kiln. Ratio of calcined dolomite, ferro-silicon and bauxite is used in the ratio of 5.6:1:1 to produce the sponge magnesium. The progress on the development of Electro-thermal batch Mg-producing technology consists of processing the raw material at a pilot scale of 300-450 kg per batch producing ~40kg sponge Mg. As of now, 17 campaigns have been carried out towards the pilot plant standardization with respect to the functioning of each and every component and establishing of the process parameters at the mentioned scale, process parameters optimization, fine tuning of the process parameters with improved yield and purity etc. The 18th Campaign is underway. At this stage of pilot scale development it requires reproducibility of results and investigation on still higher rate of charging raw material more than13.5kg/h with higher power feeding rate during the reproducibility of the campaigns to further lowering of the power consumption and higher productivity. In view of the mentioned objectives it is proposed to carry out 5 campaigns more campaigns including detailed project report (DPR) preparation for processing the next higher pilot scale of 1T raw material/120kg Mg working in semi-continuous mode with the end product in the form of billets after flux refining and casting.

27NML/IPSG/2017/2017/718742017-04-012017-08-31KRISHNA KUMARR&DFast track(6 months)Extractive Metallurgy/ Pyrometallurgyproposal/ submit

Title: Technology development for flux refining of sponge magnesium at 1 kg scale

Abstract: Magnesium is lightest structural metal with strategic importance having a pyrophoric nature. Globally, more than 80% Mg is supplied by China through Pidgeon process technology, which may not be environmentally sustainable for long terms because of 40-44kg CO2 generation per kg Mg. The Electrothermal batch process developed during 12th FYP at CSIR-NML at a pilot scale of 300-450kg raw material/40 kg Mg is a promising technology for magnesium metal production with better features. This is based on liquid state silicothermic reduction of calcined dolomite by ferrosilicon as reductant in a molten slag pool of oxides, at a temperature of 1500-1600 0C. The crowns/sponge magnesium obtained from this process are of purity 90-99% depending on the location in the condenser-crucible with major impurities as MgO and the remaining impurities to the extent of 0.5 to 2.0% as Ca, Si, Al, C, O. Flux refining, being an industrially lucrative option, is a way to refine this crown/sponge Mg to yield refined Mg-metal. Basically, flux mix of MgCl2-KCl-BaCl2-CaF2 is used in industries, whose composition is guarded. For refining investigation, the magnesium content of sponge magnesium, obtained from the various campaigns at pilot plant, is required to be refined with the various combinations of flux components to get the maximum purity. Moreover, the kinetics of refining, quantity of flux for the wetting of oxides and impurities, time and stirring etc. at a scale of 500-1000 g are required to be optimized. Experiments will be carried out in a available resistance furnace. The database generated will be used in magnesium production technology development (MPT) to get the end product as refined magnesium.

28NML/IPSG/2017/2017/733452017-03-092017-03-16surajitR&DExpress Track(3 Months)Mineral Processing/ Beneficiationproposal/ save

Title: test

Abstract: test

29NML/IPSG/2017/2018/114332017-04-012018-03-31Sheuli HoreR&DExpress Track(3 Months)Extractive Metallurgy/ Process Modelingproposal/ save

Title: Mathematical modelling to characterize macrosegregation defects in an operating industrial steel slab caster

Abstract: The continuous casting of steel slabs is aimed at producing a product with a proper chemical composition, geometry and surface quality, without any or a minimum acceptable level of external and internal defects. One of the most unpredictable defects is the macrosegregation and centerline segregation, which has a negative effect on further processing of the slabs and hence on the possible uses of the final product. In the present investigation a coupled heat, fluid and solute transport model will be developed to characterize central macrosegregation in continuously cast steel slabs. Therefore, as the first step, a method of mathematically analyzing interdendritic macrosegregation will be studied incorporating pertinent phenomenological issues. The aim of formulating a mathematical model is to get a better understanding of the different physical phenomena, their interaction and the influence on operating parameters in the plant. The proposed model will attempt to characterize the extent of macrosegregation and validate that with experimentally observed segregation behavior in continuously cast steel slabs and to identify composition – processing combinations in order to obtain minimum level of segregation and better properties in continuous slab caster.

30NML/IPSG/2017/2018/121552017-04-012018-03-31Dr Krishnendu MukherjeeR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Materials Modelingproposal/ save

Title: CPFEM simulation and experimental validation to design a novel microstructure for AHSS

Abstract: A novel microstructural concept will be investigated for advanced high strength steels (AHSS). Optimized distribution of soft and high-strength phases will render steel that will have a good combination of strength and ductility. It is proposed that a channel of soft ferrite phase around a high-strength martensite phase will impart ductility in the high strength steel. The activities for this project proposal will involve two major tasks. The first task will be to design a microstructure that will give high strength and sufficient ductility through modelling. This will involve, e.g., to see the effect of the size of the martensite phase, distribution of the ferrite phase, thickness of the ferrite channel, on the properties of the steel as discussed above. It is proposed to use a crystal plasticity based finite element modelling (CPFEM) approach to design the optimum microstructure. It is proposed to do this part in collaboration with IIT, Bombay. Discussion has been initiated with faculty member of IIT, Bombay for this purpose. The next task will be to produce the microstructure in an industrially viable route. Facilities at NML, the Continuous annealing simulator (CAL simulator) and the hot-dip galvanizing process simulator (HDPS) will be used to quantify the processing parameters to achieve the designed microstructure. The samples obtained from these simulators will be subjected to tensile tests and these may validate the numerical simulation results. Initial simulations at NML have shown that with this microstructural concept potential steels can be obtained having a good combination of strength and ductility.

31NML/IPSG/2017/2018/168752017-04-012018-03-31RajatR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Advanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & Pproposal/ submit

Title: Feasibility study of powders processed through rapid solidification for additive manufacturing

Abstract: The additive manufacturing (AM) requires high quality powders of good flowability, smooth surface finish and size ranges from 20-200 µm. The powders processed through water quenching techniques have been obtained with spherical shaped and smooth surface finish. The Fe based alloys will be processed to powders with varying parameters for optimizing its quality, and further the powders will be utilized for the processing of AM product.

32NML/IPSG/2017/2018/174042017-04-012018-03-31Saswati ChakladarR&DFull tenure(1 year)Applied & Analytical Chemistry/ Petrography & Process Mineralogyproposal/reopened for edit

Title: Influence of Mineral matter content and Structural Properties of Micronized coal of Indian origin on its Combustion Properties

Abstract: Coal particle size and mineral matter have significant effects on coal combustion. Micronization of coal produces particle size in the range of ~20 microns which thereby increases the surface area-to-volume ratio enormously. Although, micronization of coal is proven to be advantageous for improvement of properties of combustion, very little information is available for Indian coals in similar perspective. The biggest obstacle in micronization technique, however, is the removal of mineral matter from ultra-fine coal. In the proposed study, two coals will be selected based on their ash content (high ash and low ash) for micronization. Sink-Float technique will be adopted to carry out density based separation. Chemical demineralization will be performed to achieve the desired properties (ash <2%, sulphur <0.5%). The resultant product will be further micronized using ball mill grinder to finer sizes. A detailed profiling of the resultant micronized coal using TGA analyzer to understand the implication of mineral matter removal on combustion properties will be studied. Additionally, the structural properties of the micronized coal will be studied using conventional organic extraction and characterization techniques.

33NML/IPSG/2017/2018/228512017-04-012018-03-31Ashok KR&DExpress Track(3 Months)Extractive Metallurgy/ Process Modelingproposal/ submit

Title: Control and analysis of inclusions in semi finished electrical steel - module 3

Abstract: Residual non-metallic inclusions present in liquid steel are one of the causes of process interruptions during transfer of liquid steel, solidification, post processing of solidified steel. Presence of residual non-metallic inclusions also ultimately affects the end properties of the steel. Specific to electrical steel, presence of non-metallic inclusions mostly annoys its performance during magnetization and demagnetization process via, creating barkhaunsen noise. The control of amount, size, morphology and chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions is highly essential to produce extra clean electrical steel. Therefore, one of the major objectives of this module is to perform special refining treatment to control the non-metallic inclusion during liquid steel processing and followed by critical analyses to assess the cleanliness of steel

34NML/IPSG/2017/2018/317612017-04-012018-03-31Dr. Ansu J KailathR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Alloy Developmentproposal/ submit

Title: Studies on the development of high entropy alloys for high temperature applications

Abstract: Recent literature projects high entropy alloys (HEA) as potential materials which can substitute conventional materials in difficult and stringent operating conditions. Efficiency and performance of aerospace/jet/gas-turbine engines are extremely dependent on the highest allowable operating temperature of the engines. At present, these engines with Ni-based superalloys are operating around 1150°C and at ~1500°C with thermal barrier coatings and complex cooling systems. But, their efficiency at higher operating temperature is very less. Therefore, development of new ultra high temperature materials which can operate at higher temperature > 1300°C without cooling, is crucial. We propose to develop HEA containing high melting point elements viz. Cr, Ti, Zr/Hf, V, Mo/Nb, which can be potential materials for high temperature applications (~1200°C). Studies on the effect of processing parameters viz. cooling rate and heat treatment on the microstructure and properties with an aim to produce HEA with solid solution and ordered phases are also proposed in the project.

35NML/IPSG/2017/2018/346172017-04-012018-03-31Minati Kumari SahuR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Non-destructive Evaluationproposal/ submit

Title: Creep damage assessment in power plant materials using Non linear Ultrasonic Technique

Abstract: Steel pipes are the important structural components of any power plant. Operating under conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high stress, these steels have potential failure locations and limiting life for the entire plant. In addition, once a failure occurs due to creep at high temperature, the analysis team is often confronted with the question: How long will similar components last or when the next inspection be performed? To address these questions, nondestructive evaluation techniques to detect creep damage are needed. The assessment of creep damage in structures (steels) employed in the most of the industries is usually carried out by means of replica metallographic, but the several shortcomings of this method have prompted a search for alternative or complementary non-destructive techniques. Different non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as acoustic emission, infrared thermography, eddy current and linear ultrasonic measurements have been used for the measurement of different types of damage in metals In recent years, non-linear ultrasound has emerged as one of the most reliable technique for non-destructive evaluation of material property degradation, which relies on measuring the higher order harmonics generated by a damage gradient. Recent studies reveals that non-linear ultrasonic measurements are sensitive to subtle damage in a material and can be used to observe damage at an early stage and can be correlated with certain micro-structural changes leading to micro-void nucleation and growth. A greater sensitivity to damage is accessed by monitoring the material by non-linear ultrasonic technique. The objective of this research is to develop a robust experimental procedure to reliably measure the acoustic non linearity parameter using longitudinal waves in both through transmission and pulse echo modes and their correlation with micro structural and mechanical properties in power plant materials to study different stages of creep damage in P92 steel and Inconnel 600 (Inconnel 600 for creep void and NLU parameter correlation)

36NML/IPSG/2017/2018/410522017-04-012018-03-31SUMANTA BAGUIR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Mechanical Behaviour of Materialsproposal/ submit

Title: Creep and creep crack growth behavior of a Nickel base alloy [Module-III]

Abstract: Alloy 617 (Ni-22Cr-12Co-9Mo) is primarily solid-solution strengthened nickel base superalloy. It is one of most promising materials for an advanced ultra-super critical (A-USC) fossil fuel fired boiler for its superior mechanical properties, especially creep resistance. Alloy 617 is planned to use around 700-750°C and >24 MPa pressure in internal piping of different section of A-USC boiler. Hence, studies on deformation behavior of Alloy 617 due to creep between 650-800°C is very much essential. Intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) takes part a critical role in boiler to transfer heat from primary reactor to the relatively cold fluid in secondary reactor. Temperature difference/gradient in primary and secondary legs of IHX often responsible for crack initiation source at critical location and propagate to cause failure diminishing the expected creep rupture life of Alloy 617. Similar situation may occur where failure originates at a stress concentration or at pre-existing defects in the component. Below sub-creep temperature regime, conventional fracture mechanics approach for predicting crack growth behavior under elastic or elastic-plastic condition is well established. Whereas, in creep temperature regime, crack tip parameter must take into account time dependent creep deformation. Hence, creep crack growth behavior of Alloy 617 is equally important to understand failure due to creep resulting from a localized damage. Alloy 617 comprises equiaxed grain of gamma phase, annealing twins, uniformly distributed primary carbides (MC, M2C-type) within the grain and secondary carbides (M23C6-type) within the grain and along the grain boundaries. However, proportion of theses phases changes with thermal exposure. Damage accumulated due to creep in bulk material and localized region (due to presence of a crack) needs quantification for better understanding of high temperature deformation behavior of Alloy 617. Though solid solution strengthening is dominant in Alloy 617, other strengthening mechanism are also important and needs to be identified. The prime objective of this research work in Module III is to finish all remaining creep tests relevant to identify bulk creep deformation mechanism of Alloy 617 at various stress ranges between 650-800°C. Furthermore, quantification of damage in terms of dislocation density measurement, creep void measurement etc. and quantification of phases will be determined in this module. In later modules, investigation will be carried out to determine the effect of pre-existing crack on creep/design life.

37NML/IPSG/2017/2018/431142017-04-012018-03-31charu singhR&DFull tenure(1 year)Surface Engineering/ Corrosionproposal/ submit

Title: Studies on corrosion behavior of electrodeposited Ni using ionic liquid on AZ91 and AZ31 Mg alloys.

Abstract: Magnesium is very reactive and corrodes in preference to deposition in the bath which makes it difficult to plate. This is further complicated by the secondary phases present as they cause the galvanic corrosion at very high rate. The proposal aims at to improve the surface suitable for deposition and to enhance the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy by nickel electrodeposition using ionic liquid; To compare this with the other coatings (such as aqueous plating and solgel), sol-gel coatings will also be attempted. The research will also be carried to develop suitable pretreatment for the magnesium surface so that the dissolution can be controlled during ionic liquid electrodeposition as well as sol-gel coating. The suitability of the process shall be established by nickel deposition on pre-treated magnesium surface and their corrosion behaviour.

38NML/IPSG/2017/2018/480412017-04-012018-03-31Madan MR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive Metallurgy/ Process Modelingproposal/ submit

Title: Modelling of the Inclusion removal by synthetic Slag – A Multi-phase CFD coupled with DEM approach

Abstract: The challenges required by the applications to improve the mechanical and other properties led to improve the cleanliness of the steel. This increasing demand in recent years for high quality steels has considerably affected the steelmaking process practices itself. The non-metallic inclusion plays an important role in the clean steel technology where it has to be minimized or be modified to remove its harmful nature by controlling their morphology, composition and size distribution. The inclusions in the steels are removed by using the synthetic slag. The mechanism of the inclusion removal from the metal to the slag phase is to be assessed in detail to enhance its usability in the treatment of the steel in Ladle. The kinetics of the inclusion removal and the flow behavior in the Ladle plays an important part in increasing the inclusion removal from the steel. A combined approach of the thermodynamics, kinetics and CFD will articulate the maximum inclusion removal with minimum of given time period. In this study, a detailed thermodynamics and kinetics is to be carried out to find best suited synthetic slag for the Al killed steels.

39NML/IPSG/2017/2018/51902017-04-012018-03-31ASISH KUMAR DATTAR&DExpress Track(3 Months)Materials Evaluation/ Mechanical Behaviour of Materialsproposal/ submit

Title: Optimization of Hysteretic Dissipation Energy of Moment Resistant Frame for High Rise Steel Structures against Earthquake Excitations for Different Grades of High Tensile Steels: Module III

Abstract: Seismic resistant steel moment resistant frame combine high stiffness in the elastic range with good ductility and energy dissipation capacity in the inelastic range. Under severe cyclic loading, the inelastic deformation is restricted and localized primarily in beam members, which are designed and detailed to sustain large inelastic deformations without significant loss of strength. The beams act as ductile members, dissipating energy through stable hysteretic behavior, while limiting the forces transmitted to the other components in the structure. Furthermore, it is difficult to assess whether the structure can survive another earthquake, since no measure of the cumulative inelastic action that has taken place during an earthquake is usually possible. The present study represents a continued effort towards evaluation of plastic deformation capacities of steel member of high rise structure subjected to cyclic loads from four hypothetical time history frequencies. In ‘Module I & II’ extensive work had been carried out in respect of design philosophy, structural concepts and dynamic responses of high rise steel structures subjected to earthquake forces. A sound methodology had been developed for modeling responses of steel frame structure subjected to earthquake forces for different height to plan by finite element approach. Both CSIR-SERC & BARC, Trombay had expressed their interest for joint venture for a research program of combined analytical and large-scale experimental studies is the concern of this proposal.

40NML/IPSG/2017/2018/519982017-04-012018-03-31abhishek KumarR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral Processing/ Beneficiationproposal/ submit

Title: Enhancement of dewatering efficiency of mineral slurry using surface active reagents.

Abstract: Solid liquid separation is an integral part of any mineral processing industry. Ore beneficiation necessarily requires removal of large amounts of water before further processing of concentrated ores. Most of the low grade ores require fine grinding for their liberation of valuable mineral from the gangue during processing. As a result, the mineral grain size decreases. The tendency for water to be trapped on porous surfaces and between particles increases as the size of particles decreases. Water also has a greater difficulty in passing through the interstitial voids, when the particle diameter decreases. Dewatering of fines upto the desired level required for the subsequent operations is difficult to achieve using conventional dewatering techniques. Typical examples of dewatering problem faced by mineral industry includes: - High moisture content of fine iron ore concentrate poses serious problem in pelletization. - Difficulty in Coke making due to the high moisture content of fine clean coal. So this project aims at enhancing the water removal capability during filtration by using certain surface modifier reagents which can modify either particle size or surface chemistry or both. Presently its output will be in terms of basic research but if it succeeds it is expected to be beneficial to the process industry.

41NML/IPSG/2017/2018/566732017-04-012018-03-31surajitR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Mechanical Behaviour of Materialsproposal/ submit

Title: Determination of post-necking tensile stress-strain behavior of steel sheet using digital image correlation technique

Abstract: Tensile test is the most common and easiest way to evaluate the stress-strain behavior of sheet metals. However, the description of stress-strain behavior is often limited to uniform elongation of the material. Normally, the stress-strain behavior after uniform elongation is estimated by extrapolation. Such extrapolation is usually done by adopting a combination of analytical, experimental and finite element simulation. No direct experimental technique is available till date for capturing post neck stress-strain other than the hydraulic bulge test. Present work aims to demonstrate a procedure to determine the post-necking tensile stress-strain behavior of steel sheet using digital image correlation technique.

42NML/IPSG/2017/2018/569012017-04-012018-03-31R&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Mechanical Behaviour of Materialsproposal/ save

Title: Determination of post-necking tensile stress-strain behavior of steel sheet using digital image correlation technique

Abstract: Tensile test is the most common and easiest way to evaluate the stress-strain behavior of sheet metals. However, the description of stress-strain behavior is often limited to uniform elongation of the material. Normally, the stress-strain behavior after uniform elongation is estimated by extrapolation. Such extrapolation is usually done by adopting a combination of analytical, experimental and finite element simulation. No direct experimental technique is available till date for capturing post neck stress-strain other than the hydraulic bulge test. Present work aims to demonstrate a procedure to determine the post-necking tensile stress-strain behavior of steel sheet using digital image correlation technique.

43NML/IPSG/2017/2018/583782017-04-012018-03-31Aarti KumariR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive Metallurgy/ Hydrometallurgyproposal/ submit

Title: Separation studies of rare earth metals from the leach liquor of scrap magnet of wind turbines

Abstract: NdFeB magnet is widely used in modern technological equipment especially for clean energy development. The scrap NdFeB magnet containing ~30% of rare earth metals can be utilized as secondary resources of rare earths. Literature survey shows that hydrometallurgical recycling of rare earths elements from scrap NdFeB magnets consumes high concentration of acid and iron is rarely recovered in usable form. Aiming at selective recovery of rare earth elements from scrap NdFeB magnet with minimum consumption of acid, scrap wind turbine magnets were obtained from Regen Powertech Pvt. Limited, a wind energy company of India. In Module I, roasting followed by leaching with 0.5M HCl at 95°C and 100 g/L pulp density, rare earth elements were selectively and quantitatively recovered leaving iron in the leach residue as hematite. The leach solution obtained under optimized condition contained 17 g/L Nd, 3.9 g/L Pr, 0.24 g/L Dy and 0.7 g/L B. Advanced application requires high purity individual rare earth oxides. Therefore, in Module II rare earth elements present in the above leach solution will be separated by solvent extraction/ membrane separation/ precipitation. Various novel and existing commercial/ solvent extractant reagents such as Cyanex 572, Cyphos IL 104, D2EHPA etc. will be tested for their effective separation. Separation condition will be optimized by varying various parameters such as pH, extractant concentration, temperature etc. High pure individual rare earths oxides from the purified solution will be prepared by precipitation. Finally complete process flowsheet will be proposed for the recovery of high pure individual rare earth oxide from the scrap wind turbine magnet.

44NML/IPSG/2017/2018/606532017-04-012018-03-31Murugesan A PR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Metal Formingproposal/ submit

Title: Thermo -mechanical processing parameters on microstructures and hot deformation behaviour of molybdenum added low carbon micro alloyed steel (Module 3)

Abstract: Abstract Line pipe steels, based on API standard, up to strength level of X70 grade are commercially made and being extensively used as structural material in oil and petroleum industries due to their excellent mechanical properties, like tensile strength, toughness and weldability. Although efforts have been made at industrial as well as laboratory level to develop materials beyond the strength level of X70, there are still no defined rule for composition design and suitable thermo-mechanical controlled processing (TMCP) schedule. The role of addition of Molybdenum (Mo) in low carbon micro-alloyed steel, under influence of deformation schedule around Tnr (Non recrysllaization temperature) finish rolling temperatures on development of beneficial microstructures (bainite, acicular ferrite), flow properties and recrystallization behavior of low carbon micro-alloyed steel, has been studied in last modules. First deformation was carried out at well above austenisation and Tnr temperature i.e 1070°C, while finish deformation temperatures varied from 950°C to 800°C. Molybdenum added steel showed the reduction of grain size i.e finer grain sizes, lower than 5µm, when deformation temperature reduced down to 800°C. However, applying proper finish rolling strategy with right cooling rate is essential to generate desired microstructural product. It is understood from previous work that highest deformation below Tnr and the deformation temperature just above the Ar3 temperature yields finer microstructure. Cooling rate for all deformation schedule was kept constant, 20c/s. Further, cooling rate after final deformation decides predominantly type of different microstructure product (polygonal ferrite. Quasi-gonal ferrite, lower baintie, Martensite-Austenite (M-A product). Therefore, finish deformation temperature below Tnr and cooling rate in addition to the deformation schedule must be carefully chosen to get such a desired final microstructure. The important objective of present module is to study the effect of cooling rate and quantitative analysis of different microstructures of low carbon micro alloyed steels of Gleeble processed samples by SEM-EBSD and TEM techniques extensively.

45NML/IPSG/2017/2018/616882017-04-012018-03-31Saswati ChakladarR&DFull tenure(1 year)Applied & Analytical Chemistry/ Petrography & Process Mineralogyproposal/ submit

Title: Influence of Mineral matter content and Structural Properties of Micronized coal of Indian origin on its Combustion Properties

Abstract: Coal particle size and mineral matter have significant effects on coal combustion. Micronization of coal produces particle size in the range of ~20 microns which thereby increases the surface area-to-volume ratio enormously. Although, micronization of coal is proven to be advantageous for improvement of properties of combustion, very little information is available for Indian coals in similar perspective. The biggest obstacle in micronization technique, however, is the removal of mineral matter from ultra-fine coal. In the proposed study, two coals will be selected based on their ash content (high ash and low ash) for micronization. Sink-Float technique will be adopted to carry out density based separation. Chemical demineralization will be performed to achieve the desired properties (ash <2%, sulphur <0.5%). The resultant product will be further micronized using ball mill grinder to finer sizes. A detailed profiling of the resultant micronized coal using TGA analyzer to understand the implication of mineral matter removal on combustion properties will be studied. Importantly, the chemical structural properties of the micronized coal will be studied using conventional organic extraction and characterization techniques. Hence, a comprehensive and detailed structural and chemical characterization of micronized coal of Indian origin is planned aiming at improvement of combustion properties.

46NML/IPSG/2017/2018/642112017-04-012018-03-31Ranjeet Kumar SinghR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral Processing/ Beneficiationproposal/ submit

Title: Study of Particulate Flow in Centrifugal Force Field with Continuous Fluid Current (Module-I of Doctoral Research)

Abstract: Separation of particles on the basis of specific gravity depends upon the velocity with which they move in a fluid media. The velocity of a particle in a fluid depends not only on its specific gravity but also its size. As the size of the particles goes down, differences in settling kinetics of particles is narrow down and it is difficult to separate particles in gravitational force field. Enhancement of gravitational force improve the settling kinetics of fine particles thereby enhance the separation efficiency. In order to study the effect of centrifugal force on settling kinetics of particles present work will be carried out. In Module-I (present study) of i-PSG Project it is aimed to track a different density particles in a centrifugal fluidized separator through experimentation. Silica and magnetite with a top size of 150µm will be used to form a model binary density system. Semi-batch Falcon gravity concentrator (SB40) will be used as a centrifugal fluidized separator for the present study. Two machine parameters such as a rotational speed and back water pressure would be taken as an experimental variable. Product of both stream (Heavy & Light) will be collected and characterized in terms of size and density. Misplacement of heavy particles in lighter stream and light particle in heavier stream in different size classes will be estimated. An attempt will also make to find the limitation of centrifugal force field and effect of design parameters on settling kinetic of particles.

47NML/IPSG/2017/2018/671452017-04-012018-03-31Dr. Ashok Kumar MohantyR&DFull tenure(1 year)Surface Engineering/ Surface Modificationproposal/ submit

Title: Formulation of flame-retardant intumescent coating using extract of semi-coking coal

Abstract: Flame retardant intumescent coatings are commonly used to protect structural steel components in buildings or any other steel supported structure against the effects of any fire conditions. Although the intumescent technology is well developed, some problems still exists like (i) high cost, (ii) Organic additives undergo exothermic decomposition, which reduces thermal insulation value of the system, (iii) The resulting carbonaceous char has low structural integrity and cannot withstand the mechanical stress induced by fire, (iv) relative toxic gases evolve during charring of the coating in case of fire. The objective of the present project proposal is to develop new flame-retardant intumescent coating formulation using semi-coking coal as the carbon component. Density gradient separation of semi-coking coal will be carried out to isolate the coking component that will be used in formulation of the fire retardant intumescent coating. Formulation of the flame-retardant intumescent coating will be done using suitable polymer, coking component of semi-coking coal and other inorganic and organic nitrogen containing additives. Performance of developed fire retardant flame-retardant intumescent coating will be evaluated as per ISO/TR 834-3: 1994 standard.

48NML/IPSG/2017/2018/710232017-04-012018-03-31Beena KuamriKnowledge ManagementFull tenure(1 year)R&D Management/ Information Managementproposal/ submit

Title: CSIR-NML_Clientele - A web-based information system for managing customer profile and feedback

Abstract: Primarily, the proposed system intends to create and manage profile of the existing and probable customers of CSIR-NML. It intends to provide an online platform for the customers wherein the customers can get all information about the projects, they sponsored. i.e. generating single window of information of clients and their projects. Secondly, the new system shall be converting existing manual /offline processes pertaining to "Customer Satisfaction Evaluation" and "Customer Feedbacks" into online processes. The system shall provide modules that would enable gathering and analyzing the client feedbacks online viz. Add/Edit/View Feedbacks, Generate Feedback Reports and Calculating Customer Satisfaction Index. Hence, the major objectives of the proposed system are to maintain profiles of our R&D sponsors as well as to keep track of their overall satisfaction levels.

49NML/IPSG/2017/2018/73272017-04-012018-03-31Udaya bhaskara rao ModalavalasaR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Materials Joiningproposal/ submit

Title: Design and Development of “Inverter based Power Source” for Arc welding

Abstract: Welding is method of joining metals in which heat/pressure is applied on to the contact area between two metals. Welding system essentially requires the source of heat generation. A “power source” with a particular set of characteristic phenomena is required for generation and control of generated output heat. Proper selection of welding power source and effective control of its output characteristics will heavily influences the weld quality. With the development of “Power electronics” along with huge availability of its components, size of welding power sources got reduced drastically and machines became portable. Different control mechanisms got developed for different weld property combinations. However, the electrical topologies involved in such parameter/behavior control of weld system are widely unknown due to market strategy and monopoly. So this project basically aims at In-house development of welding system starting from conventional transformer based system and developing the same with high frequency transformer power electronics converter based topology for efficient output control. Electrical characteristics of the system will be evaluated and validated with different control techniques. Presently study is to understand the basics of the Arc Welding power sources and its control. Further studies will be beneficial for emergence of different Electrical control mechanisms for efficient weld quality and as well for the automation along with energy conservation to the manufacturing sector.

50NML/IPSG/2017/2018/743282017-04-012018-03-31Archana KumariR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive Metallurgy/ Hydrometallurgyproposal/ submit

Title: STUDIES FOR THE RECOVERY OF LANTHANIDE GROUP METALS FROM PRIMARY AND SECONDARY RESOURCES [Module-II: Leaching studies of Rare Earth Metals from primary (monazite) and secondary (E-waste) resources]

Abstract: In continuation of the previous work (OLP-0288, Module-I) under the EMR-CSIR project for Senior Research Fellowship entitled "STUDIES FOR THE RECOVERY OF LANTHANIDE GROUP METALS FROM PRIMARY AND SECONDARY RESOURCES", which was focused on the pre-treatment studies of the primary ore monazite/ secondaries containing rare earth metals (REMs) and their characterization, the Module-II is focused on the leaching studies of Rare Earth Metals (REMs) from primary (monazite) and secondary (E-waste) resources. Present work is focused on the development of extraction processes for the recovery of REMs from pre-treated monazite and secondary resources (E-waste). After pre-treatment, leaching studies will be carried out to select suitable lixiviant using various leachant such as acids, alkali, complex salts, etc. in atmospheric as well as high pressure temperature conditions. After selecting the suitable leachant and process, further studies will be carried out by varying different process parameters viz. temperature, acid concentration, time, pulp density, particle size, etc. to get suitable condition for effective leaching of REMs. The obtained leach liquor will contain mixed REMs. For getting pure solutions of REMs from obtained leach liquor, further Solvent Extraction (SX)/ Ion-Exchange (IX)/ Cementation/ Precipitation experiments will be carried out in Module-III. From the pure solution of metals, salts/ pure metals can be obtained either by evaporation/ crystallization.

51NML/IPSG/2017/2018/784072017-04-012018-03-31KRISHNA KUMARR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive Metallurgy/ Pyrometallurgyproposal/ save

Title: Studies on metal vapor distillation for metal extraction and refining

Abstract: Distillation is a separation process which is used to separate the components of a system based on their boiling points and vapor pressures at specific thermodynamic conditions. In metallurgy, distillation may be used as a strong tool to separate, selectively a component from the system by maintaining suitable conditions, at much higher scale than at what it is. The basic philosophy for distillation is as follows, if an impurity in a metal has a high vapor pressure which is significantly greater than that of the metal itself, the impurity may be distilled off, leaving behind the pure metal and vice versa. Low boiling points metals like mercury, cadmium, sodium, zinc, tellurium, magnesium, calcium, antimony, lead etc can be separated and refined from higher boiling point metals by distillation and subsequent condensation to the pure metal. The temperature required for melting and vaporization may be brought down considerably by the use of vacuum. Thermodynamic, Hydrodynamics and transport phenomena controls the heat and mass transfer rates during phase change of the system. The technique of metal distillation for purification of metals to high and ultrahigh purity is not explored much for industrial applications.

52NML/IPSG/2017/2018/80572017-04-012018-03-31Ammasi AR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive Metallurgy/ Agglomerationproposal/ submit

Title: Effect of oxygen partial pressure on induration behaviors of carbon added iron oxide pellets and burning behaviour of carbon (different origin) in pellets (Module II)

Abstract: In case of magnetite pellets, change in roasting atmosphere in induration furnace greatly improve the recrystallization and diffusion bond in magnetite pellets because of spontaneous conversion of cubic magnetite to hexagonal hematite lattice , which resulted in increase in cold compressive strength, reducibility index of the pellets and other properties of pellets as well. However, hematite pellet does not get influence with change in oxygen atmosphere due to the highest stable form of iron oxide at standard state. The change in oxygen atmosphere during induration hematite pellet does not affect the induration behaviour of hematite pellets. To improve the quality of hematite pellets and to decrease the energy consumption, certain amount of different carbonaceous materials ((coke, jhama coal and BF flue dust), will be admixed with hematite pellets feed. During induration of carbon added hematite pellets oxidation of carbon produces carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. The ratio of CO and CO2 is depends on activity of carbon, partial pressure of gases particularly oxygen partial pressure, temperature, etc. The generated CO may reduce the iron oxide in hematite in some extent. The reduced iron oxide may deteriorate the pellet quality if recrystallization and re oxidation of reduced iron oxide are not accomplished. The change in oxygen partial pressure may affect the burning behaviour of carbon in pellets and induration mechanism of carbon added hematite pellets may be altered. Therefore, the gas mixture argon and oxygen will be injected into induration furnace strand at appropriate time and temperature to study the burning behaviour of carbon and induration behaviour of hematite pellets. The injection of oxygen in appropriate time and temperature may simulate the magnetite pellets, which mean recrystallization and diffusion bond can be obtained in hematite pellets as well. In present study, different carbonaceous materials such as coke, jhama coal and BF Flue dust will be used in hematite ore pellets as an additive to study the burning characteristics of carbon (different sources) includes oxidation of carbon, start and finish temperature of carbon consumption, quantification of CO and CO2 with partial pressure of oxygen, etc. Induration behaviour of hematite pellet in presence of different source of carbon and optimization and their burning characteristics in induration strand will be studied to enhance the maximum utilization of carbon for in-situ heat generation and minimizing the reduction of iron oxide reduction in pellet by controlling burning behaviour of carbon in pellet. An effect of pO2 on induration behaviour of Fe2O3 of or carbon added iron oxide pellet and burning characteristic/behaviour of carbonaceous materials will be studied to avail the maximum amount of in-situ heat from the carbon, which will help in reducing external energy consumption.

53NML/IPSG/2017/2018/89632017-04-012018-03-31Rajesh Kumar RaiR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Mechanical Behaviour of Materialsproposal/ submit

Title: High Temperature Mechanical Deformation and Fracture Behavior of Nickel Based Super-alloys (module III).

Abstract: The CM 247 alloy is designed primarily for directionally solidified turbine blade and vane applications. Directional solidification (DS) reduces the number of grain boundaries transverse to the primary loading axis, obtaining improved creep resistance. In DS blades the [001] crystallographic orientation is the preferred orientation along the blade principal axis. During service condition, these components are exposed to severe stress conditions and temperature fluctuation. These service conditions induce low cycle fatigue, creep and creep-fatigue damage in the material. The present proposal aims at studying creep-fatigue interaction behaviour of CM 247 DS nickel base superalloys at temperatures above 750oC and 850oC and studying the microstructural changes through extensive scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

54NML/IPSG/2017/2018/89852017-04-032018-04-02A K PramanickR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Alloy Developmentproposal/ submit

Title: Development of Zr-Ca-Si-Ti-B Alloy for Biomaterial Application

Abstract: Presently, orthopaedic alloys based on stainless steel, cobalt-chrome and titanium are widely used as implant materials. However, these alloys have a number of long-term limitations such as stress shielding, corrosion etc. Hence, development of new materials for an implant with better properties in terms of biocompatibility with body and as well as modulus of elasticity (Ƴ) closer to that of bone is in high demand. The modulus closer to the bone will eliminate the effect of stress shielding and improve the failure of the implant [1]. Again interactions of materials with living tissues, i.e. biocompatibility play an important role towards the development of such implants. The term biocompatibility implies material’s acceptability with body tissue. In general alloy chemistry plays a vital role, i.e. in terms of ion release from the implant material into the surrounding tissue. It is well known that zirconium, titanium [2] silicon [3], calcium and boron [4] are known as compatible elements. Therefore, study for development of Zr-Ca-Ti-Si-B based alloy with a combination of biocompatible metals and modulus closer to that of bone will be interesting in biomaterial applications. However, it should be noted that Phase diagrams for Zr-Ca, Ti-Ca are not available in ASM metal hand books [5].

55NML/IPSG/2017/2018/931072017-04-012018-03-31Dr. Mainak GhoshR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Advanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & Pproposal/ submit

Title: Structure-Property Co-relation of Fe-Mn-Co-Cr Quaternary HE Alloy

Abstract: High Entropy Alloys (HEAs) are one of the most promising new generation materials for their probable efficacious use in cryogenic application. Deformation behavior of the FCC system is principally governed by stacking fault energy (SFE). SFE on the other hand is dependent on composition of the system and environment temperature. For defined cryo-application, the required mechanical properties are known for existing materials and will serve as yard stick in present endeavor. Thus, aim of the proposed investigation is alteration of SFE of the system by changing the composition for identifying most preferable domain of mechanical properties so that it may be at least at par / better w.r.t. existing alloys for said application arena. Working elements will involve study on deformation behavior / mechanical properties of the material, followed by evaluation of microstructure for various alloys.

56NML/IPSG/2017/2018/98312017-04-012018-03-31Dr S K MAITYR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive Metallurgy/ Electrometallurgyproposal/ submit

Title: High Temperature Electrolysis for Extraction of Rare Earth Metals

Abstract: The project is submitted under Thematic project proposal in sub area no. 2, REE & PGM category . Rare earth metal comprising of fourteen elements has special significance because of the rich resources of rare earth minerals in India. The demand of elemental rare earth metal is steadily increasing and there is no commercial production in India to fulfill the indigenous demand for nuclear and magnetic applications. The reduction of rare earth chlorides to elemental rare earth metal is a widely adapted process. The high temperature electrolysis of rare earth chloride finds relevant importance because of low operating temperature, less hazardous and less energy intensive process. The main objective of this study is to develop an indigenous technology for the production of rare earth metals ingot from rare earth chlorides by high temperature electrolysis. Initially out of the fourteen rare earth metals, it is targeted to produce neodymium metal (mostly used rare earth metals for magnetic applications among all rare earth metal) by high temperature electrolysis. Based on earlier expertise gained during the study, the future activities for extraction of other elemental rare earth metals will be carried out.