New Proposals submitted.

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S.No. Number Start Date End Date Project Leader Category Type Core Area/ Sub Area Status/ Action/ Resubmission/ Reason for Cancel
         
1NML/IPSG/2016/2017/261112016-03-012017-03-01Rajesh Kumar RaiR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Mechanical Behaviour of Materialsproposal/ save

Title: High Temperature Mechanical Deformation and Fracture Behavior of SU 247 Nickel Base Superalloy.

Abstract: The CM 247 DS is a compositional modified derivative of MAR M 247, particularly designed for high temperature applications in gas turbine engine. During service condition, these components are exposed to severe stress conditions and temperature fluctuation. These service conditions induce low cycle fatigue, creep and creep-fatigue damage in the material. The present proposal aims at studying isothermal LCF, creep rupture and creep-fatigue interaction behavior of CM 247 DS nickel base superalloys at temperatures above 600oC and studying the microstructural changes through extensive scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These materials are used in low pressure turbine vane (LPTV), high pressure turbine vane (HPTV), high pressure turbine rotor (HPTR) blades and low pressure turbine rotor (LPTR) blades.

2NML/IPSG/2016/2017/683612016-11-172017-11-16Adeleke Adekunle AkanniR&DFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & Environment/ Green Metallurgical Technologiesproposal/reopened for edit

Title: Development of Hybrid Fuel Briquette from Lean Grade Coal and Torrefied Lignocellulosic Woody Biomass

Abstract: The present study is aimed at developing hybrid fuel briquette from lean grade coal and torrefied Lignocellulosic Woody Biomass (LWB). Coal samples were collected from Okaba (established mine: N07 30´ E07 42´) and Odagbo (virgin mine: N06 12´ E06 28´) fields in Kogi State, Nigeria. Tectona grandis (Teak wood) and Gmelina arborea (Melina wood) were collected from Agbamu village farm (N08 7ʹ E04 52ʹ) in Kwara State, Nigeria. Characterization of coal and LWB will be carried out: there is no literacy on the type, properties and behavior of coal from Odagbo field. LWB are hydrophilic in nature, contains low energy density and high volatile matter thus, torrefaction process will be used to improve the energy content, reduce the volatile matters and make it hydrophobic. For torrefaction process, parameters such as torrefaction temperature (TT), resident time (RT) and particles sizes (PS) would be varied to obtain optimum char yield and properties from LWB. Characterization of torrefied LWB (TLWB) would be carried out and optimum parameters would then be used for torrefaction of two LWB. The output will be densified with coal. Densification will be carried out under various conditions such as hybrid ratio, pressure, binding agent and die temperature. Information catalogue for coal in Odagbo field would be developed. Optimized parameters for torrefaction process of LWB will be obtained. Hybrid fuels with little or no combustion effluents such SOx NOx, and COx is expected at the end of densification process. Hybrid fuel briquettes with high energy density, good mechanical properties such as low crack formation, hardness, compressive strength and hydrophobic in nature would be developed. Optimized process parameters for densification of coal and torrefied woody biomass would be obtained.

3NML/IPSG/2017/2017/606762017-04-012017-09-30R&DExpress Track(3 Months)Extractive Metallurgy/ Pyrometallurgyproposal/ save

Title: Improvement in Development of Magnesium Metal Production Technology and DPR preparation for the scale-up industrially viable project

Abstract: Magnesium is the lightest structural metal which has applications in aerospace, automotive, desulfurization of steel etc. including the strategic applications in defense and atomic energy. CSIR-NML has been undergoing on the development of the Electro-thermal batch technology for producing sponge magnesium 35-40kg in one batch from the reduction of calcined dolomite by ferro-silicon at a temperature of 1500-1600C in the presence of calcined bauxite under a vacuum of 10-20 mbar under 12th FYP. Dolomite is calcined at a temperature of 1200-1300C in a available diesel fired Rotary Kiln. Ratio of calcined dolomite, ferro-silicon and bauxite is used in the ratio of 5.6:1:1 to produce the sponge magnesium. The progress on the development of Electro-thermal batch Mg-producing technology consists of processing the raw material at a pilot scale of 300-450 kg per batch producing ~40kg sponge Mg. As of now, 17 campaigns have been carried out towards the pilot plant standardization with respect to the functioning of each and every component and establishing of the process parameters at the mentioned scale, process parameters optimization, fine tuning of the process parameters with improved yield and purity etc. The 18th Campaign is underway. At this stage of pilot scale development it requires reproducibility of results and investigation on still higher rate of charging raw material >13.5kg/h with higher power pumping rate during the reproducibility of the campaigns to further lowering of the power consumption and higher productivity. In view of the mentioned objectives it is proposed to carry out 3-5 more campaigns including detailed project report (DPR) preparation for processing the next higher pilot scale of 1T raw material/120kg Mg working in semi-continuous mode with the end product in the form of billets after flux refining and casting.

4NML/IPSG/2017/2017/757192017-06-012018-05-31Rohit Buddham MeshramR&DFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & Environment/ Othersproposal/reopened for edit

Title: Development of Expertise in Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) at CSIR-NML

Abstract: LCA is a decision-making/supporting tool. It acknowledges all stages of a product's life and its environmental, economic and social implications. It is also used as an input for policy decisions, corporate management, product development, marketing, environmentally preferable purchasing programs, and carbon or greenhouse gas monitoring. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the all the phases of the production process, analyzing the energy and materials consumption through LCA method integrated with risk and social assessments, environmental externality studies, and geospatially focused impact assessments using Software. Through this proposal, we would like to initiate LCA for industry/organizations to compare designs, products or services, and also its applications to waste management activities at CSIR-NML Jamshedpur.

5NML/IPSG/2017/2018/114332017-04-012018-03-31Sheuli HoreR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive Metallurgy/ Process Modelingreview/resubmitted by PL

Title: A novel coupled multiscale modelling framework to characterize macrosegregation defects in an operating industrial steel slab caster

Abstract: The continuous casting of steel slabs is aimed at producing a product with a proper chemical composition, geometry and surface quality, without any or a minimum acceptable level of external and internal defects. One of the most unpredictable defects is the macrosegregation and centerline segregation, which has a negative effect on further processing of the slabs and hence on the possible uses of the final product. In the present investigation a novel coupled multiscale model will be developed to simulate the microstructure evolution together with characterization of macrosegregation during solidification. The multiscale model will comprise of mesoscale (Cellular Automata/ Monte Carlo) modelling of nucleation, growth, and impingement of equiaxed grains in the solidification process and coupling of the mesoscale simulation with heat transfer, fluid flow and solute transport phenomena in the continuum scale. The continuum models will be used to compute the relations between the process parameters and the macroscopic field variables along with solute transport and macrosegregation characteristics. The mesoscale model will be used to calculate the relations between the macroscopic variables and the evolution of microstructure. The coupled multiscale model will be tuned with respect to the industrial data for carbon steel. The proposed multiscale model will attempt to characterize the extent of macrosegregation and validate that with experimentally observed segregation behavior in continuously cast steel slabs and to identify composition processing combinations in order to obtain minimum segregation and better properties.

6NML/IPSG/2017/2018/121552017-06-012018-05-31Dr Krishnendu MukherjeeR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Materials Modelingreview/resubmitted by PL

Title: A crystal plasticity based computational materials engineering approach to design novel microstructure suitable for development of 3rd generation AHSS

Abstract: Opportunities exist to apply computational model to guide the development of third generation of AHSS. This would be a suitable candidate material for a combined approach of computational materials engineering and experimental based simulation. In literature it is mentioned that the third generation of AHSS may contain several phases, e.g., martensite, retained austenite, ferrite. The volume fraction and distribution of phases may be varied to achieve the strength and ductility in the level of 3rd generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS). The effect of these parameters on the strength and ductility of steels may be a good topic for computational materials engineering approach. For this purpose a crystal plasticity (CP)based approach is proposed be undertaken to take into account the effect of the local orientation of the phases on the local deformation and which will in turn effect the global deformation. A novel spectral solver will be used based on the fast fourier transformation (FFT) algorithm to simulate the crystal plasticity model. This exercise may be useful to design new microstructures for third generation AHSS. The volume fraction, distribution, grain size, orientation of different phases can be varied in the simulation and the effect of this variation on the stress-strain behaviour may be simulated through CPFFT. This may lead to tailoring of microstructure according to the required mechanical properties of the steel. The structure of the crystal-plasticity based constitutive model is the core of crystal plasticity modelling. The phenomenological dislocation slip is usually used as constitutive model in the literature. But, other physics based constitutive models may be required for the deformation of complex microstructure of third generation AHSS (e.g. austenite to martensite transformation). Finally this approach may build up the expertise to perform crystal plasticity modelling at NML using the novel spectral solver method. The investigated complex microstructures in the CPFFT simulation may be realized in the annealing simulators or thermomechanical simulator in industrially viable route.

7NML/IPSG/2017/2018/128992017-06-012018-05-31Dr. Shantanu V. MadgeR&DFull tenure(1 year)Others/ Othersreview/reopened for edit

Title: Microstructure-Mechanical Properties Correlations in 3D Printed Steels

Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM), also called 3D printing, is an emerging field and it is of both technological and scientific interest. Steels are used ubiquitously, hence AM of steels is also of practical importance. Here, we propose to investigate AM of 316L stainless steel, using the laser bed additive manufacturing facility at ARCI Hyderabad. The optimum laser processing parameters will be identified, and correlated with the resulting microstructures. Of particular interest will be the grain size and morphology, including possible texture development. The occurrence of residual stresses in the as-deposited material will be studied using X-ray diffraction. Finally, mechanical properties of 3D printed steels will be studied, especially fatigue (LCF or FCGR) and fracture toughness (JIc), which have hardly been characterized, even at major global laboratories. It is hoped that the knowledge gained through this project will facilitate the eventual setting-up of a state-of-the-art AM laboratory at CSIR-NML, a proposal for which has already been submitted to the Steel Development Fund.

8NML/IPSG/2017/2018/168752017-04-012018-03-31RajatR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Advanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & Pproposal/reopened for edit

Title: Processing of Alloy Powders through Rapid solidification Routes for their suitability in Additive Manufacturing

Abstract: In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on advanced materials processing through additive manufacturing. This help in developing critical component of complex design with near net shape casting. In most of the cases, the standard steel powders (like 304 SS, 316SS) are used for designing the components. Attempts are being made to develop powder of newer alloy composition and utilize those for making components through additive manufacturing. Earlier CSIR-NML developed many high glass forming ability (GFA) alloys with improved properties. However, due to high cooling rate (~ 103 to 106 K/s, these alloys are restricted to thin ribbon or rods of smaller diameter or very small components (~ mm in size). In contrast, the processing technique like Additive Manufacturing using alloy powders with high GFA can help in developing critical components of bigger size and shape. The present project will aim to prepare powders of bulk metallic glass composition with the existing facility at CSIR-NML and feasibility of making a simple component out of those powders through additive manufacturing with the facility available at ARCI, Hyderabad or somewhere else. If it is possible to make a component out of the powder of bulk metallic glass composition it will be interesting to see whether the component is retaining the GFA during selective laser melting and thereby the mechanical and functional properties of bulk metallic glass alloy.

9NML/IPSG/2017/2018/174042017-04-012018-03-31Saswati ChakladarR&DFull tenure(1 year)Applied & Analytical Chemistry/ Petrography & Process Mineralogyproposal/reopened for edit

Title: Influence of Mineral matter content and Structural Properties of Micronized coal of Indian origin on its Combustion Properties

Abstract: Coal particle size and mineral matter have significant effects on coal combustion. Micronization of coal produces particle size in the range of ~20 microns which thereby increases the surface area-to-volume ratio enormously. Although, micronization of coal is proven to be advantageous for improvement of properties of combustion, very little information is available for Indian coals in similar perspective. The biggest obstacle in micronization technique, however, is the removal of mineral matter from ultra-fine coal. In the proposed study, two coals will be selected based on their ash content (high ash and low ash) for micronization. Sink-Float technique will be adopted to carry out density based separation. Chemical demineralization will be performed to achieve the desired properties (ash <2%, sulphur <0.5%). The resultant product will be further micronized using ball mill grinder to finer sizes. A detailed profiling of the resultant micronized coal using TGA analyzer to understand the implication of mineral matter removal on combustion properties will be studied. Additionally, the structural properties of the micronized coal will be studied using conventional organic extraction and characterization techniques.

10NML/IPSG/2017/2018/26112017-05-172018-05-17SUNIL KUMARR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Process Modelingreview/reopened for edit

Title: Large-scale massively parallel molecular dynamics simulation of metal-matrix nano-composite: novel design and characterization

Abstract: Metal-matrix nano-composites are used for a wide range of applications including aerospace, automotive, nuclear, biotechnology, electronic and sporting goods industries. A novel large-scale massively parallel molecular dynamics simulation framework will be developed to investigate an appropriate equilibration sequence to computationally design and characterise properties of iron (bcc), aluminum (fcc) and magnesium (hcp) based metal matrix nano-composite. This large-scale massively parallel molecular dynamics simulation framework enables simulation of a physical problem on the micro-meter scale which has been so far only possible by continuum based methods. Embedded atom force field, adaptive inter-molecular reactive bond order (AIREBO), and 12-6 Lennard Jones parameters will be used for various atomic interactions in metal matrix nano-composite. The carbonaceous nano-material such as single wall carbon nano-tube (SWCNT) and graphene will be used as nano-fillers. It is expected that the organisation of metal atoms over the nano-filler substrate controls the dispersion-aggregation of nano-fillers. However, the encapsulation of metal inside the hollow cylindrical cavity of SWCNT or between two graphene layers will enhance the additional desirable properties. Aspect ratio of nano-fillers and its weight percentage in metal will be preliminary key parameters for the novel design of metal-matrix nano-composites. The effect of dispersion-aggregation of nano-fillers in metal matrix on the mechanical, thermal and electrical conductivity will be investigated. Multi-axial tensile deformation simulation methodology will be incorporated to study stress-stain behaviour along with nano-void formations and evolution of various types of dislocations in metal matrix nano-composite. Muller-Plathe algorithm will be used for the estimation of thermal conductivity of metal matrix nano-composite. Metal crystallisation and grain growth will be studied for both pure metal and metal matrix nano-composite. Using massively parallel high-performance computing resources, it would be now possible to simulate molecular systems of unprecedented size and complexity (as proposed in this project) although it is a colossal scientific challenge. It is expected that the proposed molecular dynamics simulation of metal-matrix nano-composite will open a new phase in computational material simulations with respect to novel design and characterisation philosophy.

11NML/IPSG/2017/2018/287762017-06-012018-05-31Dr. Mainak GhoshR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Advanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & Pproposal/reopened for edit

Title: Structure-Property Co-relation of Fe-Mn-Co-Cr Quaternary HE Alloy.

Abstract: High Entropy Alloys (HEAs) are one of the most promising new generation materials for their probable efficacious use in cryogenic application. Based on crystal structure three types of HEA have been reported in literatures; VEC ≥8 forms FCC, VEC 6.9 promotes BCC and VEC in between them results in combination of both. Among all these, FCC structure draws special attention owing to its versatile deformation behavior at different operating temperatures. Deformation behavior of FCC system is principally governed by stacking fault energy (SFE). SFE on the other hand is dependent on composition of the system and environmental temperature. In present endeavor from the well reported Fe-Mn-Co-Cr-Ni alloy system, the last element will be dropped. Dropping of Ni exhibited encouraging results at ambient temperature in couple of literatures; however, the response of same quaternary HEA toward cryo-temperature is still unknown. 304LN SS is presently a recommended alloy for its use in sub-zero temperature. This austenitic stainless steel will be considered as a yard stick for evaluation of mechanical properties of new alloy at sub-zero temperature. Aim of the present investigation thus becomes two folds, change in alloy composition to alter the SFE of the system so that i) mechanical properties of the system can be altered to make a comparison with 304LN SS and ii) explore the deformation mechanism at that sub-ambient temperature.

12NML/IPSG/2017/2018/299232017-06-012018-03-31Mamta SharmaR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral Processing/ Petrography & Process Mineralogyproposal/ submit

Title: Influence of Micronization on Mineral Content and Chemical Structure of Indian Coal

Abstract: Abstract: Coal particle size and mineral matter have significant effects on coal combustion. Micronization of coal produces particle size in the range of ≤20 microns which thereby increases the surface area-to-volume ratio enormously. Micronization of coal is proven to be advantageous for improvement of combustion; however, very little information is available for Indian coals in similar perspective. Mechanical comminution to such fine particle size is also believed to effect the chemical structural integrity of coal, which is largely unexplored. Hence, the proposed study on micronization of Indian coals will primarily consist of three elements; 1) Comminution; 2) Demineralization; and 3) Chemical Characterization. To initiate, two distinct coal samples will be characterised through petrographic analysis and SEM-EDS studies. They will be further taken forward for fine milling and detailed organic characterization. Experimentally, density based separation at 0.5 mm size fraction will be adopted initially, the results from which will further dictate the course of project. This novel technique of micronization with its high usefulness in improving boiler efficiency, through ash minimization, would be extremely beneficial to try from Indian industrial perspective. This untried proposed study is believed to provide a detailed correlation of structural and chemical changes micronization would induce in Indian coals, futuristically aiming at improvement of combustion properties. ________________________________________

13NML/IPSG/2017/2018/317612017-04-012018-03-31Dr. Ansu J KailathR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Alloy Developmentreview/reopened for edit

Title: Studies on the development of high entropy alloys for high temperature applications

Abstract: Recent literature projects high entropy alloys (HEA) as potential materials which can substitute conventional materials in difficult and stringent operating conditions. Efficiency and performance of aerospace/jet/gas-turbine engines are extremely dependent on the highest allowable operating temperature of the engines. At present, these engines with Ni-based superalloys are operating around 1150°C and at ~1500°C with thermal barrier coatings and complex cooling systems. But, their efficiency at higher operating temperature is very less. Therefore, development of new ultra high temperature materials which can operate at higher temperature > 1300°C without cooling, is crucial. We propose to develop HEA containing high melting point elements viz. Cr, Ti, Zr/Hf, V, Mo/Nb, which can be potential materials for high temperature applications (~1200°C). Studies on the effect of processing parameters viz. cooling rate and heat treatment on the microstructure and properties with an aim to produce HEA with solid solution and ordered phases are also proposed in the project.

14NML/IPSG/2017/2018/346172017-04-012018-03-31Minati Kumari SahuR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Non-destructive Evaluationproposal/ submit

Title: Creep damage assessment in power plant materials using Non linear Ultrasonic Technique

Abstract: Steel pipes are the important structural components of any power plant. Operating under conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high stress, these steels have potential failure locations and limiting life for the entire plant. In addition, once a failure occurs due to creep at high temperature, the analysis team is often confronted with the question: How long will similar components last or when the next inspection be performed? To address these questions, nondestructive evaluation techniques to detect creep damage are needed. The assessment of creep damage in structures (steels) employed in the most of the industries is usually carried out by means of replica metallographic, but the several shortcomings of this method have prompted a search for alternative or complementary non-destructive techniques. Different non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as acoustic emission, infrared thermography, eddy current and linear ultrasonic measurements have been used for the measurement of different types of damage in metals In recent years, non-linear ultrasound has emerged as one of the most reliable technique for non-destructive evaluation of material property degradation, which relies on measuring the higher order harmonics generated by a damage gradient. Recent studies reveals that non-linear ultrasonic measurements are sensitive to subtle damage in a material and can be used to observe damage at an early stage and can be correlated with certain micro-structural changes leading to micro-void nucleation and growth. A greater sensitivity to damage is accessed by monitoring the material by non-linear ultrasonic technique. The objective of this research is to develop a robust experimental procedure to reliably measure the acoustic non linearity parameter using longitudinal waves in both through transmission and pulse echo modes and their correlation with micro structural and mechanical properties in power plant materials to study different stages of creep damage in P92 steel and Inconnel 600 (Inconnel 600 for creep void and NLU parameter correlation)

15NML/IPSG/2017/2018/439512017-06-012018-03-31Mamta SharmaR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral Processing/ Petrography & Process Mineralogyproposal/ save

Title: Influence of Micronization on Mineral Content and Chemical Structure of Indian Coal

Abstract: Abstract: Coal particle size and mineral matter have significant effects on coal combustion. Micronization of coal produces particle size in the range of ≤20 microns which thereby increases the surface area-to-volume ratio enormously. Micronization of coal is proven to be advantageous for improvement of combustion; however, very little information is available for Indian coals in similar perspective. Mechanical comminution to such fine particle size is also believed to effect the chemical structural integrity of coal, which is largely unexplored. Hence, the proposed study on micronization of Indian coals will primarily consist of three elements; 1) Comminution; 2) Demineralization; and 3) Chemical Characterization. To initiate, two distinct coal samples will be characterised through petrographic analysis and SEM-EDS studies. They will be further taken forward for fine milling and detailed organic characterization. Experimentally, density based separation at 0.5 mm size fraction will be adopted initially, the results from which will further dictate the course of project. This novel technique of micronization with its high usefulness in improving boiler efficiency, through ash minimization, would be extremely beneficial to try from Indian industrial perspective. This untried proposed study is believed to provide a detailed correlation of structural and chemical changes micronization would induce in Indian coals, futuristically aiming at improvement of combustion properties.

16NML/IPSG/2017/2018/45462017-04-012018-03-31KRISHNA KUMARR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive Metallurgy/ Process Modelingproposal/reopened for edit

Title: Heat transfer modelling of condensation behavior of metal (Mg) vapors during distillation for quantitative analysis of condenser design (module I)

Abstract: 1. Distillation is a separation process which is used to separate the components of a system based on their boiling points and vapor pressures at specific thermodynamic conditions. In metallurgy, distillation may be used as a strong tool to separate, selectively a component from the system by maintaining suitable conditions, at much higher scale than at what it is. A method of condensing magnesium vapor which comprises passing the vapor successively into two or more condensation zones maintained at condensation temperatures respectively above and below the melting temperature of magnesium, whereby the major portion of the vapor is condensed in the first zone directly to a liquid and the remaining vapor is condensed in the second zone as a solid, and combining the condensate from the second zone with that formed in the first zone, where by substantially all the magnesium condensed is recovered in the liquid state. Heat, mass and momentum transport plays a crucial role during condensation phenomena. In this study an integrated condensation heat transfer model for magnesium vapour will be developed based on drop wise and film wise condensation mechanism, which will be primarily validated with literature data and experimental findings. The model is expected to provide guidelines to facilitate computational design analysis of a condenser unit based on simulation study. The experimental set up for the model validation study and understanding of the mechanism of heat transfer will also be designed.

17NML/IPSG/2017/2018/534872017-06-012018-06-01Ganesh ChalavadiR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral Processing/ Beneficiationproposal/reopened for edit

Title: Modelling and Simulation of non- conventional superimposed multi-force mineral separator (Thematic Research)

Abstract: Abstract for Thematic research In the present scenario, the most significant change in the state of the raw mineral base is the lowering of the metals content in ores, increase in the ash content of raw coal and the introduction of low grade ores which are extremely difficult to beneficiate. This situation considerably reduces the efficiency of beneficiation and demands improvement and modification of existing equipment and ore beneficiation methods. All most all the existing beneficiation system are single separating force (gravity or magnetic or electric or surface forces etc) dependent for beneficiation, but with the existing depletion of valuables in ore there is a need for developing a novel superimpose multi-force separators which can beneficiate low grade ores efficiently. Superimpose multi-force separators use the combination of 2 or more forces for beneficiating the ores. Using modelling and simulations for developing multi-force mineral separators will help to investigate the effect of changes without producing a physical prototype there by not wasting money and time. And also modelling and simulation gives an ease to edit the design ideas, which makes it easier and cheaper to modify the design multiple times until positive output is obtained. The main objective of this work is to model and simulate the non-conventional superimposed multi-force mineral separator and the results obtained are implemented in reality there by making beneficiation processes efficient for given tough mineral to beneficiate . Initial work is planned to carry out with the superimposing of gravity and magnetic forces for coarser size range (1mm to 0.1mm),superimposing gravity and electric forces for finer size range (-0.1mm) in a separator. By using the law of conservation of momentum mathematical models are framed. Validation of modelling and simulation results is very necessary step. The simulated model shall be fabricated on bench scale and experimentation will carried out for validation.

18NML/IPSG/2017/2018/569012017-04-012018-03-31R&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Mechanical Behaviour of Materialsproposal/ save

Title: Determination of post-necking tensile stress-strain behavior of steel sheet using digital image correlation technique

Abstract: Tensile test is the most common and easiest way to evaluate the stress-strain behavior of sheet metals. However, the description of stress-strain behavior is often limited to uniform elongation of the material. Normally, the stress-strain behavior after uniform elongation is estimated by extrapolation. Such extrapolation is usually done by adopting a combination of analytical, experimental and finite element simulation. No direct experimental technique is available till date for capturing post neck stress-strain other than the hydraulic bulge test. Present work aims to demonstrate a procedure to determine the post-necking tensile stress-strain behavior of steel sheet using digital image correlation technique.

19NML/IPSG/2017/2018/616882017-04-012018-03-31Saswati ChakladarR&DFull tenure(1 year)Applied & Analytical Chemistry/ Petrography & Process Mineralogyreview/reopened for edit

Title: Influence of Mineral matter content and Structural Properties of Micronized coal of Indian origin on its Combustion Properties

Abstract: Coal particle size and mineral matter have significant effects on coal combustion. Micronization of coal produces particle size in the range of ~20 microns which thereby increases the surface area-to-volume ratio enormously. Although, micronization of coal is proven to be advantageous for improvement of properties of combustion, very little information is available for Indian coals in similar perspective. The biggest obstacle in micronization technique, however, is the removal of mineral matter from ultra-fine coal. In the proposed study, two coals will be selected based on their ash content (high ash and low ash) for micronization. Sink-Float technique will be adopted to carry out density based separation. Chemical demineralization will be performed to achieve the desired properties (ash <2%, sulphur <0.5%). The resultant product will be further micronized using ball mill grinder to finer sizes. A detailed profiling of the resultant micronized coal using TGA analyzer to understand the implication of mineral matter removal on combustion properties will be studied. Importantly, the chemical structural properties of the micronized coal will be studied using conventional organic extraction and characterization techniques. Hence, a comprehensive and detailed structural and chemical characterization of micronized coal of Indian origin is planned aiming at improvement of combustion properties.

20NML/IPSG/2017/2018/638932017-06-012018-06-01Sanchita ChakravartyR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral Processing/ Petrography & Process Mineralogyproposal/reopened for edit

Title: Influence of Micronization on Mineral Content and Chemical Structure of Indian Coal

Abstract: Coal particle size and mineral matter have significant effects on coal combustion. Micronization of coal produces particle size in the range of ≤20 microns which thereby increases the surface area-to-volume ratio enormously. Micronization of coal is proven to be advantageous for improvement of combustion; however, very little information is available for Indian coals in similar perspective. Mechanical comminution to such fine particle size is also believed to effect the chemical structural integrity of coal, which is largely unexplored. Hence, the proposed study on micronization of Indian coals will primarily consist of three elements; 1) Comminution; 2) Demineralization; and 3) Chemical Characterization. To initiate, a pool of coal samples will be screened using petrographic analysis and SEM-EDS studies. Petrographically distinct coal samples will be chosen for further fine milling and detailed organic characterization. Experimentally, density based separation at 0.5 mm size fraction will be adopted initially, the results from which will further dictate the course of project. This novel technique of micronization with its high usefulness in improving boiler efficiency, through ash minimization, would be extremely beneficial to try from Indian industrial perspective. This untried proposed study is believed to provide a detailed correlation of structural and chemical changes micronization would induce in Indian coals, futuristically aiming at improvement of combustion properties. ________________________________________

21NML/IPSG/2017/2018/642112017-04-012018-03-31Ranjeet Kumar SinghR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral Processing/ Beneficiationproposal/reopened for edit

Title: Study of Particulate Flow in Centrifugal Force Field with Continuous Fluid Current (Module-I of Doctoral Research)

Abstract: Separation of particles on the basis of specific gravity depends upon the velocity with which they move in a fluid media. The velocity of a particle in a fluid depends not only on its specific gravity but also its size. As the size of the particles goes down, differences in settling kinetics of particles is narrow down and it is difficult to separate particles in gravitational force field. Enhancement of gravitational force improve the settling kinetics of fine particles thereby enhance the separation efficiency. In order to study the effect of centrifugal force on settling kinetics of particles present work will be carried out. In Module-I (present study) of i-PSG Project it is aimed to track a different density particles in a centrifugal fluidized separator through experimentation. Silica and magnetite with a top size of 150µm will be used to form a model binary density system. Semi-batch Falcon gravity concentrator (SB40) will be used as a centrifugal fluidized separator for the present study. Two machine parameters such as a rotational speed and back water pressure would be taken as an experimental variable. Product of both stream (Heavy & Light) will be collected and characterized in terms of size and density. Misplacement of heavy particles in lighter stream and light particle in heavier stream in different size classes will be estimated. An attempt will also make to find the limitation of centrifugal force field and effect of design parameters on settling kinetic of particles.

22NML/IPSG/2017/2018/699652017-06-012018-03-31Gopi Kishor MandalR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Solidification & Castingproposal/ submit

Title: Simulation of thin strip casting

Abstract: To compensate the environmental degradation and energy losses, steel plants will need to use new efficient technologies capable of supplying steel strip products of high quality at low cost. Direct strip casting technology has the potential of producing steel strips at a greatly reduced cost. However, there is a high emphasis on improvement in surface quality, geometry and properties of the cast strip. The larger aim is to develop a much wider range of advanced steels from this technology. For this technology, the conditions are drastically different to conventional processing that the solidification and subsequent microstructural evolution is yet not understood. High casting speed and rapid solidification of strips demand an accurate control of process parameters. The main focus of present study is to generate a fundamental knowledge required to develop steels with higher levels of both strength and formability. The high rate of heat extraction from the melt through the rolls results in faster solidification and produces as-cast steel microstructures radically different to those produced by conventional routes. Therefore, in the present investigation, molten steel with desired composition will be cast as thin strips (3-5 mm) in water cooled copper mould in order to obtain coarse grained solidification structure akin to strip cast sheets. The post-solidification microstructure controls the mechanical properties of the final product. Additionally, the challenge for strip casting is the single pass high deformation to achieve the properties. Therefore, the current investigation also aims to establish hot working schedule based on thin strip casting process parameters that will link the recrystallised austenite to the as-cast austenite grain size and deformation conditions.

23NML/IPSG/2017/2018/710232017-04-012018-03-31Beena KuamriKnowledge ManagementFull tenure(1 year)R&D Management/ Information Managementproposal/ submit

Title: CSIR-NML_Clientele - A web-based information system for managing customer profile and feedback

Abstract: Primarily, the proposed system intends to create and manage profile of the existing and probable customers of CSIR-NML. It intends to provide an online platform for the customers wherein the customers can get all information about the projects, they sponsored. i.e. generating single window of information of clients and their projects. Secondly, the new system shall be converting existing manual /offline processes pertaining to "Customer Satisfaction Evaluation" and "Customer Feedbacks" into online processes. The system shall provide modules that would enable gathering and analyzing the client feedbacks online viz. Add/Edit/View Feedbacks, Generate Feedback Reports and Calculating Customer Satisfaction Index. Hence, the major objectives of the proposed system are to maintain profiles of our R&D sponsors as well as to keep track of their overall satisfaction levels.

24NML/IPSG/2017/2018/73272017-04-012018-03-31Udaya bhaskara rao ModalavalasaR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Materials Joiningproposal/ submit

Title: Design and Development of Inverter based Power Source for Arc welding. (Project under Technology development category)

Abstract: Welding is method of joining metals in which heat/pressure is applied on to the contact area between two metals. Welding system essentially requires the source of heat generation. A power source with a particular set of characteristic phenomena is required for generation and control of generated output heat. Proper selection of welding power source and effective control of its output characteristics will heavily influences the weld quality. With the development of Power electronics along with huge availability of its components, size of welding power sources got reduced drastically and machines became portable. Different control mechanisms got developed for different weld property combinations. However, the electrical topologies involved in such parameter/behavior control of weld system are widely unknown due to market strategy and monopoly. This project basically aims at Design and Development of modern welding power source. Starting from conventional transformer based system and developing the same with high frequency transformer power electronics Inverter based topology for efficient output control. A prototype Inverter welding power source will be developed and its electrical characteristics (which ultimately defines welding quality) will be evaluated and validated with different control techniques. This work is a precursor to develop a Technology for developing the advanced control power source which will be beneficial for efficient control of weld quality and for automation along with energy conservation.

25NML/IPSG/2017/2018/784072017-04-012018-03-31R&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive Metallurgy/ Pyrometallurgyproposal/ save

Title: Heat transfer modelling of condensation behavior of metal (Mg) vapors during distillation for quantitative analysis of condenser design (module I)

Abstract: Distillation is a separation process which is used to separate the components of a system based on their boiling points and vapor pressures at specific thermodynamic conditions. In metallurgy, distillation may be used as a strong tool to separate, selectively a component from the system by maintaining suitable conditions, at much higher scale than at what it is. The basic philosophy for distillation is as follows, if an impurity in a metal has a high vapor pressure which is significantly greater than that of the metal itself, the impurity may be distilled off, leaving behind the pure metal and vice versa. Low boiling points metals like mercury, cadmium, sodium, zinc, tellurium, magnesium, calcium, antimony, lead etc can be separated and refined from higher boiling point metals by distillation and subsequent condensation to the pure metal. The temperature required for melting and vaporization may be brought down considerably by the use of vacuum. Thermodynamic, Hydrodynamics and transport phenomena controls the heat and mass transfer rates during phase change of the system. The technique of metal distillation for purification of metals to high and ultrahigh purity is not explored much for industrial applications. Condensation Heat transfer modelling for metals will be taken as lead activity in this module of project. The population balance model may be used to understand the dropwise and filmwise mechanism for condensation

26NML/IPSG/2017/2018/89632017-04-012018-03-31Rajesh Kumar RaiR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Evaluation/ Mechanical Behaviour of Materialsproposal/ submit

Title: High Temperature Mechanical Deformation and Fracture Behavior of Nickel Based Super-alloys (module III).

Abstract: The CM 247 alloy is designed primarily for directionally solidified turbine blade and vane applications. Directional solidification (DS) reduces the number of grain boundaries transverse to the primary loading axis, obtaining improved creep resistance. In DS blades the [001] crystallographic orientation is the preferred orientation along the blade principal axis. During service condition, these components are exposed to severe stress conditions and temperature fluctuation. These service conditions induce low cycle fatigue, creep and creep-fatigue damage in the material. The present proposal aims at studying creep-fatigue interaction behaviour of CM 247 DS nickel base superalloys at temperatures above 750oC and 850oC and studying the microstructural changes through extensive scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

27NML/IPSG/2017/2018/89852017-06-012018-05-31A K PramanickR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Alloy Developmentproposal/ submit

Title: High Entropy Zr-Ca-Si-Ti-Fe based Alloy for Biomaterial Application

Abstract: High Entropy Alloy (HEA) is relatively a new class material and have gained lots of interest to the researcher community in the recent years. They are characterised by unconventional compositions having multiple numbers of major alloying elements. HEA alloy contains at least five alloying elements with the concentration in a range of 5-35 at. % and minor elements <5 at.%. HEA multi-component alloys are often formed single solid-solution of single crystallographic phase; face centre cubic, body centre cubic or amorphous phase alloys. Their collective behaviour is mainly characterised atomic size difference (δ), mixing enthalpy (ΔHmix) and mixing entropy (ΔSmix). They share many common properties with that of bulk metallic glasses (BMG). Therefore, high-entropy bulk metallic glasses (HE-BMGs) provides an opportunity to study new type alloy system [1,2,3] Presently, orthopaedic alloys based on stainless steel, cobalt-chrome and titanium are widely used as implant materials. However, these alloys have a number of limitations such as stress shielding, corrosion etc [4]. Hence, development of new implant materials with better biocompatibility modulus of elasticity (Ƴ) closer to bone is in high demand. It is well known that zirconium, titanium [5] silicon [6], calcium and iron [7] in limit are biocompatible elements. Therefore, development of Zr-Ca-Ti-Si-Fe based HE-BMG with a combination of biocompatible metals and modulus closer to that of bone will be interesting in biomaterial applications. However, it should be noted that Phase diagrams for Zr-Ca, Ti-Ca are not available in ASM Metal Hand Books [8]. Therefore alloy development with Zr-Ca-Ti-Si-Fe composition is a challenging work

28NML/IPSG/2017/2018/931072017-04-012018-03-31Dr. Mainak GhoshR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials Engineering/ Advanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & Preview/reopened for edit

Title: Structure-Property Co-relation of Fe-Mn-Co-Cr Quaternary HE Alloy

Abstract: High Entropy Alloys (HEAs) are one of the most promising new generation materials for their probable efficacious use in cryogenic application. Deformation behavior of the FCC system is principally governed by stacking fault energy (SFE). SFE on the other hand is dependent on composition of the system and environment temperature. For defined cryo-application, the required mechanical properties are known for existing materials and will serve as yard stick in present endeavor. Thus, aim of the proposed investigation is alteration of SFE of the system by changing the composition for identifying most preferable domain of mechanical properties so that it may be at least at par / better w.r.t. existing alloys for said application arena. Working elements will involve study on deformation behavior / mechanical properties of the material, followed by evaluation of microstructure for various alloys.

29NML/IPSG/2017/2018/98312017-04-012018-03-31Dr S K MAITYR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive Metallurgy/ Electrometallurgyreview/reopened for edit

Title: High Temperature Electrolysis for Extraction of Rare Earth Metals

Abstract: The project is submitted under Thematic project proposal in sub area no. 2, REE & PGM category . Rare earth metal comprising of fourteen elements has special significance because of the rich resources of rare earth minerals in India. The demand of elemental rare earth metal is steadily increasing and there is no commercial production in India to fulfill the indigenous demand for nuclear and magnetic applications. The reduction of rare earth chlorides to elemental rare earth metal is a widely adapted process. The high temperature electrolysis of rare earth chloride finds relevant importance because of low operating temperature, less hazardous and less energy intensive process. The main objective of this study is to develop an indigenous technology for the production of rare earth metals ingot from rare earth chlorides by high temperature electrolysis. Initially out of the fourteen rare earth metals, it is targeted to produce neodymium metal (mostly used rare earth metals for magnetic applications among all rare earth metal) by high temperature electrolysis. Based on earlier expertise gained during the study, the future activities for extraction of other elemental rare earth metals will be carried out.