Ongoing Projects

S.No. Number Start Date End Date Project Leader Category Type Core Area Sub Area
1NML/IPSG/2017/2018/12155 (OLP 0317)2017-06-012018-05-31Dr Krishnendu MukherjeeR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMaterials Modeling

Title: A crystal plasticity based computational materials engineering approach to design novel microstructure suitable for development of 3rd generation AHSS

Abstract: Opportunities exist to apply computational model to guide the development of third generation of AHSS. This would be a suitable candidate material for a combined approach of computational materials engineering and experimental based simulation. In literature it is mentioned that the third generation of AHSS may contain several phases, e.g., martensite, retained austenite, ferrite. The volume fraction and distribution of phases may be varied to achieve the strength and ductility in the level of 3rd generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS). The effect of these parameters on the strength and ductility of steels may be a good topic for computational materials engineering approach. For this purpose a crystal plasticity (CP)based approach is proposed be undertaken to take into account the effect of the local orientation of the phases on the local deformation and which will in turn effect the global deformation. A novel spectral solver will be used based on the fast fourier transformation (FFT) algorithm to simulate the crystal plasticity model. This exercise may be useful to design new microstructures for third generation AHSS. The volume fraction, distribution, grain size, orientation of different phases can be varied in the simulation and the effect of this variation on the stress-strain behaviour may be simulated through CPFFT. This may lead to tailoring of microstructure according to the required mechanical properties of the steel. The structure of the crystal-plasticity based constitutive model is the core of crystal plasticity modelling. The phenomenological dislocation slip is usually used as constitutive model in the literature. But, other physics based constitutive models may be required for the deformation of complex microstructure of third generation AHSS (e.g. austenite to martensite transformation). Finally this approach may build up the expertise to perform crystal plasticity modelling at NML using the novel spectral solver method. The investigated complex microstructures in the CPFFT simulation may be realized in the annealing simulators or thermomechanical simulator in industrially viable route.

2NML/IPSG/2017/2018/12899 (OLP 0315)2017-06-012018-05-31Dr. Shantanu V. MadgeR&DFull tenure(1 year)OthersOthers

Title: Microstructure-Mechanical Properties Correlations in 3D Printed Steels

Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM), also called 3D printing, is an emerging field and it is of both technological and scientific interest. Steels are used ubiquitously, hence AM of steels is also of practical importance. Here, we propose to investigate AM of 316L stainless steel, using the laser bed additive manufacturing facility at ARCI Hyderabad. The optimum laser processing parameters will be identified, and correlated with the resulting microstructures. Of particular interest will be the grain size and morphology, including possible texture development. The occurrence of residual stresses in the as-deposited material will be studied using X-ray diffraction. Finally, mechanical properties of 3D printed steels will be studied, especially fatigue (LCF or FCGR) and fracture toughness (JIc), which have hardly been characterized, even at major global laboratories. It is hoped that the knowledge gained through this project will facilitate the eventual setting-up of a state-of-the-art AM laboratory at CSIR-NML, a proposal for which has already been submitted to the Steel Development Fund.

3NML/IPSG/2017/2018/28776 (OLP 0314)2017-06-012018-05-31Dr. Mainak GhoshR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Structure-Property Co-relation of Fe-Mn-Co-Cr Quaternary HE Alloy.

Abstract: High Entropy Alloys (HEAs) are one of the most promising new generation materials for their probable efficacious use in cryogenic application. Based on crystal structure three types of HEA have been reported in literatures; VEC ≥8 forms FCC, VEC 6.9 promotes BCC and VEC in between them results in combination of both. Among all these, FCC structure draws special attention owing to its versatile deformation behavior at different operating temperatures. Deformation behavior of FCC system is principally governed by stacking fault energy (SFE). SFE on the other hand is dependent on composition of the system and environmental temperature. In present endeavor from the well reported Fe-Mn-Co-Cr-Ni alloy system, the last element will be dropped. Dropping of Ni exhibited encouraging results at ambient temperature in couple of literatures; however, the response of same quaternary HEA toward cryo-temperature is still unknown. 304LN SS is presently a recommended alloy for its use in sub-zero temperature. This austenitic stainless steel will be considered as a yard stick for evaluation of mechanical properties of new alloy at sub-zero temperature. Aim of the present investigation thus becomes two folds, change in alloy composition to alter the SFE of the system so that i) mechanical properties of the system can be altered to make a comparison with 304LN SS and ii) explore the deformation mechanism at that sub-ambient temperature.

4NML/IPSG/2017/2018/28792 ()2017-09-012018-08-31A K PramanickThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringBeneficiation

Title: High Entropy Zr-Ca-Si-Ti-Fe based Alloy for Biomaterial Application

Abstract: High Entropy Alloy (HEA) is relatively a new class material and have gained lots of interest to the researcher community in the recent years. They are characterized by unconventional compositions having multiple numbers of major alloying elements. HEA alloy contains at least five alloying elements with the concentration in a range of 5-35 at. % and minor elements <5 at.%. HEA multi-component alloys are often formed single solid-solution of single crystallographic phase; face centred cubic, body centred cubic or amorphous phase alloys. Their collective behaviour is mainly characterised atomic size difference (δ), mixing enthalpy (ΔHmix) and mixing entropy (ΔSmix). They share many common properties with that of bulk metallic glasses (BMG). Therefore, high-entropy bulk metallic glasses (HE-BMGs) provides an opportunity to study new type alloy system [1,2,3] Presently, orthopaedic alloys based on stainless steel, cobalt-chrome and titanium are widely used as implant materials. However, these alloys have a number of limitations such as stress shielding, corrosion etc [4]. Hence, development of new implant materials with better biocompatibility modulus of elasticity (Ƴ) closer to bone is in high demand. It is well known that zirconium, titanium [5] silicon [6], calcium and iron [7] in limit are biocompatible elements. Therefore, development of Zr-Ca-Ti-Si-Fe based HE-BMG with a combination of biocompatible metals and modulus closer to that of bone will be interesting in biomaterial applications. However, it should be noted that Phase diagrams for Zr-Ca, Ti-Ca are not available in ASM Metal Hand Books [8]. Therefore alloy development with Zr-Ca-Ti-Si-Fe composition is a challenging work.

5NML/IPSG/2017/2018/29524 (OLP 0331)2017-10-012018-09-30NIMAI HALDARTechnology DevelopmentFull tenure(1 year)OthersCSIR-800

Title: Energy efficient Coke based brass melting furnace for the artisans of West Bengal and Odisha.

Abstract: In the previous projects OLP-0249, OLP-0299 CSIR-NML has transferred 2 number of energy efficient brass melting technology to (i) Yugantar Bharati, Ranchi, Jharkhand and (ii) West Bengal Khadi & Village Industries Board, MSME & T Dept. Govt. of W.B. Subsequently, CSIR-NML installed and commissioned three furnaces at three different places, namely (i) Namkum, Ranchi, (ii) Bikna, Bankura Dist. (iii) Dariapur, Burdwan Dist. CSIR-NML also conducted several training cum demonstration programme to the artisans and District Information centre officials. They have shown their interest for the know-how to the rest part of west Benagl. In this project, it is proposed to impart training to the artisans of Ghogata, Hoogly district, West Bengal. They need technological intervention in mould pre-heating and melting furnace. It is also proposed to study the feasibility of application of know-how in other districts of Odisha, mainly in Khurda district. Discussion is also going on with Odisha State Co-op. Handicraft Corporation Ltd., Bhubaneswar for technology transfer

6NML/IPSG/2017/2018/53487 ()2017-06-012018-06-01Ganesh ChalavadiR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Modelling and Simulation of non- conventional superimposed multi-force mineral separator (Thematic Research)

Abstract: Abstract for Thematic research In the present scenario, the most significant change in the state of the raw mineral base is the lowering of the metals content in ores, increase in the ash content of raw coal and the introduction of low grade ores which are extremely difficult to beneficiate. This situation considerably reduces the efficiency of beneficiation and demands improvement and modification of existing equipment and ore beneficiation methods. All most all the existing beneficiation system are single separating force (gravity or magnetic or electric or surface forces etc) dependent for beneficiation, but with the existing depletion of valuables in ore there is a need for developing a novel superimpose multi-force separators which can beneficiate low grade ores efficiently. Superimpose multi-force separators use the combination of 2 or more forces for beneficiating the ores. Using modelling and simulations for developing multi-force mineral separators will help to investigate the effect of changes without producing a physical prototype there by not wasting money and time. And also modelling and simulation gives an ease to edit the design ideas, which makes it easier and cheaper to modify the design multiple times until positive output is obtained. The main objective of this work is to model and simulate the non-conventional superimposed multi-force mineral separator and the results obtained are implemented in reality there by making beneficiation processes efficient for given tough mineral to beneficiate . Initial work is planned to carry out with the superimposing of gravity and magnetic forces for coarser size range (1mm to 0.1mm),superimposing gravity and electric forces for finer size range (-0.1mm) in a separator. By using the law of conservation of momentum mathematical models are framed. Validation of modelling and simulation results is very necessary step. The simulated model shall be fabricated on bench scale and experimentation will carried out for validation.

7NML/IPSG/2017/2018/55644 (OLP 0327)2017-10-032018-09-28Siuli DuttaR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationNon-destructive Evaluation

Title: Correlation of microstructure and mechanical properties of steel by Electromagnetic characterization (Module 1) : Studies on recovery and recrystallization behavior of 80% cold rolled low carbon steel by Magnetic Non-destructive Evaluation

Abstract: The low carbon interstitial free (IF) steel is widely used in automobile industries due to its excellent formability and resistance to thinning, which are processed through the sequences of hot rolling, cold rolling, and annealing. The monitoring of annealing treatment is required to control microstructural features and mechanical properties at final stage which are optimized using conventional microscopy and hardness measurement. In present investigation, the IF steel specimens of 5 mm thickness will be processed by 50 and 80% cold rolling reduction, and followed by annealing treatment with temperature ranges of 200-700C. The microstructural parameters will be evaluated through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EBSD, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and mechanical properties will be determined by hardness and tensile testing. Finally, the microstructure and mechanical properties will be correlated with micromagnetic parameters measured by an electromagnetic sensor (Magstar).

8NML/IPSG/2017/2018/58368 (OLP 0329)2017-10-012018-09-30Mousumi DasScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationNon-destructive Evaluation

Title: Evaluation of residual stress and mechanical properties of in-service components using ball indentation technique with finite element modeling

Abstract: Conventional techniques for evaluation of mechanical properties of materials are well established. Yet, evaluation of the same either through in-situ or by using small amount of test materials, are in great demand for estimation of remaining lives of service exposed components. Among the various small specimen techniques ball indentation technique (BIT) is proven technique to evaluate mechanical properties of materials. BIT was developed initially to meet the urgent need of evaluating mechanical properties of nuclear irradiated materials. Later, it was found that this method is equally useful in assessing the health of a service exposed component. It is well known that residual stresses can strongly affect the mechanical performance (such as static and fatigue strengths, fracture toughness, corrosion-/wear resistance) and thus the reliability and lifetime of components. For instance, if a structural component is under an externally applied tensile stress, compressive residual stresses enhance the resistance to crack propagation, whereas tensile residual stresses deteriorate the resistance. Residual stress measurement technique is based on the key concepts that the deviatoric stress part of residual stress affects the change in indentation load-depth curve, and then by analyzing difference between residual stress-induced indentation curve and residual stress-free curve, quantitative residual stress of target region can be evaluated. Finite element method (FEM) has been widely used for simulation of BI tests on material in order to analyze its deformation response, influence of indenter geometry, friction and material elastic and plastic properties. FE simulation on BI technique can be used to study the stress states beneath the indenter. Therefore, the proposed work is aimed to introduce residual stress module into existing PABI system to make this system a complete tool for life assessment of in-use component. And validate PABI system with finite element simulation & conventional mechanical test.

9NML/IPSG/2017/2018/63807 (OLP 0330)2017-08-112018-07-13Tome SylvainScholastic ResearchFull Tenure (1 year)Resource, Energy and EnvironementMetallurgical/ Mineral waste Utilization


Abstract: In this project we are going to use municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) ash and waste glass powder (WGP) of geopolymer cement. MSWI ash is an aluminosilicate material with low reactivity. To alter its reactivity, it will be used synergistically with WGP, which is also as MSW. The geopolymer binder will be synthesising, using NaOH and Na2SiO3 combinations. The reaction kinetics will be studied using isothermal conduction calorimetric data. The geopolymer products will be characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDS and TEM. The mechanical properties of the geopolymers will be evaluated by compressive and flexural strength development. Finally the durability of this cement will be studied using wet dry cycle and sulfuric acid resistant tests.

10NML/IPSG/2017/2018/65053 (OLP 0326)2017-10-032018-09-30Sushmita DeyScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Studies on magnetocaloric behavior of NiMnGa based crystalline and Fe/Co Glassy Systems (Module 1: Preparation of NiMnGa-X(X=Cu) alloy by melting casting /meltspinning and characterization)

Abstract: In recent years, research on magnetic refrigeration has gained prominence due to environmental issues pertaining to conventional gas-based refrigeration technologies. Magnetic field induced refrigeration technology is based on the phenonmena of “Magnetocaloric Effect (MCE)”, wherein a change in temperature of a material occurs due to adiabatic application or removal of an external magnetic field. Magnetocaloric effect is characterized by magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) and working temperature span (ΔT) of the magnetic alloy. MCE is large in the vicinity of the phase transformation or Curie temperature (TC), where the magnetic spins undergo an order - disorder phase transition. The present proposal aims at studying the magnetocaloric behaviour in Ni-Mn-Ga-X based crystalline materials with first order transformation . The materials will be prepared by arc melting and melt spinning. The phase transformation will be studied using optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. TEM will be done for selected samples. Magnetic entropy change will be evaluated from the isothermal magnetization curves using Vibrating sample magnetometer (Quantum Design: Versa lab). Our main focus will be to develop a magnetic alloy with superior magnetocaloric properties.

11NML/IPSG/2017/2018/6891 (OLP 0304)2017-10-012018-09-30BIRAJ KUMAR SAHOOR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Development of Medium Mn, high Al low density high strength steel- MODULE 2

Abstract: There is a growing demand form the automotive sector for high strength light weight steel. High Mn(25-30%) and high Al(12-14%) TWIP or SIMPLEX steels having high strength and formability with lower density have been developed but owing to high Mn content, it adds hugely to the cost. It also poses manufacturing problems at industrial scale and thus not produced commercially in large scale. The density of automotive grade steel is around 7.8g/cc but with every 1% addition of Al there is a decrease in density of 1.3%. So, here lies a scope to develop a high strength steel with high Al in range of 8-12% but keeping the Mn content limited in the range of 7-12 %. With such steel, a density of 6.8-7.0 g/cc (i.e. ~10% reduction in density) can be achieved. The proposal aims to develop such steel by suitable alloy design and critically controlling the subsequent thermo-mechanical processing. The microstructure of the developed steel would be combination of ferrite, austenite with fine scale precipitation of K-carbide(FeMn)3AlC and/or B2 ordered phases(FeMnAl). The inter-critical annealing schedule after cold rolling plays a significant role for the development of the above microstructure. The precipitation of brittle intermetallics would be controlled to obtain very fine nano scale precipitation such that it would add to the strength, rather deteriorating the properties. The proposal in the module-2, aims to investigate and understand the the precipitation behavior of the intermetallics with different heat treatment schedule, its morphology, size and coherency in the ferrite-austenite matrix.

12NML/IPSG/2017/2018/72138 (OLP 0328)2017-10-012018-09-30Dr. Sabita GhoshR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMicrostructural Characterisation

Title: Study of structure-property correlation to comprehend cementite dissolution during wire drawing process

Abstract: Improvement of mechanical properties through severe plastic deformed steels have great technological importance as high-strength materials. Amongst them, heavily cold drawn pearlitic steel wires exhibit very high tensile strength. These wires are used to bear mechanical loads or for electricity and telecommunication signals, tire cord, springs, wire rope, suspension bridge cable etc. They are typically produced by drawing wire of approximately the eutectoid composition to an intermediate diameter to produce a fine perlitic microstructure followed by cold drawing to introduce high strain. Usually wire drawings require more than one draw, through successively smaller dies to reach the desired size. The process of wire drawing changes material’s properties due to introduction of enormous strain during cold drawing. Often intermediate anneals are required to counter the effects of cold working and to forward further drawing. Strength increases as a function of strains. During plastic deformation of pearlitic steel, partial dissolution of cementite has been reported, which affects the mechanical properties of the drawn steel wires, although cementite is only one-eighth of the total volume of pearlite. Therefore the aim of the present proposal is to investigate the deformed microstructure of pearlite and to study the structure-property correlation to establish the micro-mechanism of cementite dissolution

13NML/IPSG/2017/2018/77759 (OLP 0325)2017-10-032018-09-28Soni Scholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringSurface Modification

Title: Development of hard and optically transparent nanocomposite coatings for wear and optoelectronic applications. (Module I): Effect of deposition conditions on mechanical and optical behaviour of Al-S-N thin films.

Abstract: Hardness and optical transparency are the basic requirements of an Optical Protective Coating used in architectural windows, solar water heating devices, transparent windows for furnaces etc. AlN is a hard material and transparent in the visible range of light making it suitable for such applications. Si addition in AlN results in further enhancement of its hardness and also provides additional oxidation resistance due to expected Al-Si-N nanocomposite microstructure. Moreover due to field emission and wide band gap of AlN, these coatings can also be employed in Field Emission Devices and Light Emitting Diodes. This work aims to develop Al-Si-N nanocomposite coating with sound mechanical as well as optical properties and understanding the underlying mechanisms behind there fabrication by investigating there structural properties through XRD, SEM, TEM etc. and correlating it with the film mechanical and optical properties as the behavior of coating is dependent on its microstructure which ultimately depends on its growth conditions during deposition. Therefore by tailoring the microstructure we can tune the Al-Si-N thin film properties as per the application requirement.

14NML/IPSG/2017/2018/78053 (OLP 0297)2017-10-012018-09-30Premkumar MurugaiyanScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Development of High Induction amorphous based soft magnetic alloys-Module II

Abstract: Amorphous based Electrical steels are new class of soft magnetic materials with high electrical resistivity, low coercivity, low core loss and finds extensive applications as core material (transformers), stators motors, generators), Magneto static shielding, choke coils, actuators etc. The drawback of amorphous based material is its low magnetic induction (Bs) due to alloying additions for amorphous structure stabilization. The present investigation is aimed at alloy development, containing ferromagnetic Fe as base element in the range 80-85 atomic%. The present study involves in series of alloy modifications targeting optimal ratio of metalloid, grain growth inhibitor, nucleating elements and achieving magnetic induction greater than 1.5Tesla and good DC soft magnetic properties. Based on the theoretical results, Phosphorous and Boron will be the suitable metalloid for the high Fe system. Alloy optimization studies will be carried out to achieve optimal combination of high Ms, low Hc and 𝜆. The Alloy development also envisages partial crystallization and investigate the nanocrystalline effect on magnetization process. The obtained structural and soft magnetic results will be formulated in Random Anisotropy Model (RAM) to understand the compliance of developed alloys with existing model.

15NML/IPSG/2017/2018/7819 (OLP 0305)2017-09-302018-10-31Minal ShahThematic ResearchExpress Track(3 Months)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Study on Evolution of low temperature nanobainitic steel-Module 2

Abstract: With the increasing demand on energy saving, it is of necessity to develop high performance low cost steels having extraordinary high strength along with good toughness. The possibility of obtaining steels with nano size laths (20-50nm) of bainite by isothermal transformation treatment at low temperature is set forth. In this respect detail work has to be done to accelerate the kinetic of bainitic transformation by processing parameters and economical alloying elements. Role of Cu has to be studied on kinetics and Bs temperature on nanobainitic transformation. Continuous cooled bainite has to studied to accelerate the kinetics. Modeling and Simulation of Isothermal and Continuous cooled bainite through Matlab has to be done.

16NML/IPSG/2017/2018/9790 (OLP 0324)2017-09-012018-08-31NIMAI HALDARR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringMaterials Joining

Title: Friction stir welding of dissimilar material Cu-Al using cryo-treated tool

Abstract: FSW is now a very popular solid state welding process for joining two similar or dissimilar metals (ferrous & nonferrous). But still researchers are facing a lot of challenges in joining two dissimilar materials for their quite different characteristics, ingredients, melting temperature etc. So core area of my project is concerned with the FSW of two nonferrous metals like Al and Cu. Very few researches have been carried out regarding this type of dissimilar welding. This welding will be characterized by Design approach statistical design of experiment technique for maximizing tensile and hardness test, surface roughness, Mechanical characterization etc.