Ongoing Projects

S.No. Number Start Date End Date Project Leader Category Type Core Area Sub Area
1NML/IPSG/2017/2018/28792 ()2017-09-012018-08-31A K PramanickThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringBeneficiation

Title: High Entropy Zr-Ca-Si-Ti-Fe based Alloy for Biomaterial Application

Abstract: High Entropy Alloy (HEA) is relatively a new class material and have gained lots of interest to the researcher community in the recent years. They are characterized by unconventional compositions having multiple numbers of major alloying elements. HEA alloy contains at least five alloying elements with the concentration in a range of 5-35 at. % and minor elements <5 at.%. HEA multi-component alloys are often formed single solid-solution of single crystallographic phase; face centred cubic, body centred cubic or amorphous phase alloys. Their collective behaviour is mainly characterised atomic size difference (δ), mixing enthalpy (ΔHmix) and mixing entropy (ΔSmix). They share many common properties with that of bulk metallic glasses (BMG). Therefore, high-entropy bulk metallic glasses (HE-BMGs) provides an opportunity to study new type alloy system [1,2,3] Presently, orthopaedic alloys based on stainless steel, cobalt-chrome and titanium are widely used as implant materials. However, these alloys have a number of limitations such as stress shielding, corrosion etc [4]. Hence, development of new implant materials with better biocompatibility modulus of elasticity (Ƴ) closer to bone is in high demand. It is well known that zirconium, titanium [5] silicon [6], calcium and iron [7] in limit are biocompatible elements. Therefore, development of Zr-Ca-Ti-Si-Fe based HE-BMG with a combination of biocompatible metals and modulus closer to that of bone will be interesting in biomaterial applications. However, it should be noted that Phase diagrams for Zr-Ca, Ti-Ca are not available in ASM Metal Hand Books [8]. Therefore alloy development with Zr-Ca-Ti-Si-Fe composition is a challenging work.

2NML/IPSG/2017/2018/29524 (OLP 0331)2017-10-012018-09-30NIMAI HALDARTechnology DevelopmentFull tenure(1 year)OthersCSIR-800

Title: Energy efficient Coke based brass melting furnace for the artisans of West Bengal and Odisha.

Abstract: In the previous projects OLP-0249, OLP-0299 CSIR-NML has transferred 2 number of energy efficient brass melting technology to (i) Yugantar Bharati, Ranchi, Jharkhand and (ii) West Bengal Khadi & Village Industries Board, MSME & T Dept. Govt. of W.B. Subsequently, CSIR-NML installed and commissioned three furnaces at three different places, namely (i) Namkum, Ranchi, (ii) Bikna, Bankura Dist. (iii) Dariapur, Burdwan Dist. CSIR-NML also conducted several training cum demonstration programme to the artisans and District Information centre officials. They have shown their interest for the know-how to the rest part of west Benagl. In this project, it is proposed to impart training to the artisans of Ghogata, Hoogly district, West Bengal. They need technological intervention in mould pre-heating and melting furnace. It is also proposed to study the feasibility of application of know-how in other districts of Odisha, mainly in Khurda district. Discussion is also going on with Odisha State Co-op. Handicraft Corporation Ltd., Bhubaneswar for technology transfer

3NML/IPSG/2017/2018/55644 (OLP 0327)2017-10-032018-09-28Siuli DuttaR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationNon-destructive Evaluation

Title: Correlation of microstructure and mechanical properties of steel by Electromagnetic characterization (Module 1) : Studies on recovery and recrystallization behavior of 80% cold rolled low carbon steel by Magnetic Non-destructive Evaluation

Abstract: The low carbon interstitial free (IF) steel is widely used in automobile industries due to its excellent formability and resistance to thinning, which are processed through the sequences of hot rolling, cold rolling, and annealing. The monitoring of annealing treatment is required to control microstructural features and mechanical properties at final stage which are optimized using conventional microscopy and hardness measurement. In present investigation, the IF steel specimens of 5 mm thickness will be processed by 50 and 80% cold rolling reduction, and followed by annealing treatment with temperature ranges of 200-700C. The microstructural parameters will be evaluated through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EBSD, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and mechanical properties will be determined by hardness and tensile testing. Finally, the microstructure and mechanical properties will be correlated with micromagnetic parameters measured by an electromagnetic sensor (Magstar).

4NML/IPSG/2017/2018/58368 (OLP 0329)2017-10-012018-09-30Mousumi DasScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationNon-destructive Evaluation

Title: Evaluation of residual stress and mechanical properties of in-service components using ball indentation technique with finite element modeling

Abstract: Conventional techniques for evaluation of mechanical properties of materials are well established. Yet, evaluation of the same either through in-situ or by using small amount of test materials, are in great demand for estimation of remaining lives of service exposed components. Among the various small specimen techniques ball indentation technique (BIT) is proven technique to evaluate mechanical properties of materials. BIT was developed initially to meet the urgent need of evaluating mechanical properties of nuclear irradiated materials. Later, it was found that this method is equally useful in assessing the health of a service exposed component. It is well known that residual stresses can strongly affect the mechanical performance (such as static and fatigue strengths, fracture toughness, corrosion-/wear resistance) and thus the reliability and lifetime of components. For instance, if a structural component is under an externally applied tensile stress, compressive residual stresses enhance the resistance to crack propagation, whereas tensile residual stresses deteriorate the resistance. Residual stress measurement technique is based on the key concepts that the deviatoric stress part of residual stress affects the change in indentation load-depth curve, and then by analyzing difference between residual stress-induced indentation curve and residual stress-free curve, quantitative residual stress of target region can be evaluated. Finite element method (FEM) has been widely used for simulation of BI tests on material in order to analyze its deformation response, influence of indenter geometry, friction and material elastic and plastic properties. FE simulation on BI technique can be used to study the stress states beneath the indenter. Therefore, the proposed work is aimed to introduce residual stress module into existing PABI system to make this system a complete tool for life assessment of in-use component. And validate PABI system with finite element simulation & conventional mechanical test.

5NML/IPSG/2017/2018/62657 ()2017-10-012018-09-30Swapan Kumar DasScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Study of wear and RCF mechanism in high carbon nano-pearlitic rail steel.

Abstract: The service life of rail steels is dictated by the wear and rolling contact fatigue resistance, which further depend upon the hardness and the toughness of the steel. Both of these properties being inversely dependent upon the interlamellar spacing of pearlite, the refining of pearlitic microstructure becomes an important aspect in the rail steel processing. The previous module thus aimed at attempting for nano –pearlitic microstructure in the hypereutectoid regime so as to obtain a synergistic effect of increased cementite content as well as overall ferrite cementite interfaces in the pearlite on the toughness and hardness of the material. By improving the hardness and toughness of the material the wear and RCF resistance would also enhance. Therefore, in continuation with the previous module the present module would focus upon the mechanical property evaluation of the designed alloy. The evaluation would include properties like tensile strength, toughness, fracture toughness and wear resistance. This would also involve detailed microstructural characterization to detect the deformation behaviour and failure mechanisms in the material. The outcome of the present work thus would be the mechanical properties along with the details of deformation mechanisms followed in the material.

6NML/IPSG/2017/2018/65053 (OLP 0326)2017-10-032018-09-30Sushmita DeyScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Studies on magnetocaloric behavior of NiMnGa based crystalline and Fe/Co Glassy Systems (Module 1: Preparation of NiMnGa-X(X=Cu) alloy by melting casting /meltspinning and characterization)

Abstract: In recent years, research on magnetic refrigeration has gained prominence due to environmental issues pertaining to conventional gas-based refrigeration technologies. Magnetic field induced refrigeration technology is based on the phenonmena of “Magnetocaloric Effect (MCE)”, wherein a change in temperature of a material occurs due to adiabatic application or removal of an external magnetic field. Magnetocaloric effect is characterized by magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) and working temperature span (ΔT) of the magnetic alloy. MCE is large in the vicinity of the phase transformation or Curie temperature (TC), where the magnetic spins undergo an order - disorder phase transition. The present proposal aims at studying the magnetocaloric behaviour in Ni-Mn-Ga-X based crystalline materials with first order transformation . The materials will be prepared by arc melting and melt spinning. The phase transformation will be studied using optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. TEM will be done for selected samples. Magnetic entropy change will be evaluated from the isothermal magnetization curves using Vibrating sample magnetometer (Quantum Design: Versa lab). Our main focus will be to develop a magnetic alloy with superior magnetocaloric properties.

7NML/IPSG/2017/2018/6891 (OLP 0304)2017-10-012018-09-30BIRAJ KUMAR SAHOOR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Development of Medium Mn, high Al low density high strength steel- MODULE 2

Abstract: There is a growing demand form the automotive sector for high strength light weight steel. High Mn(25-30%) and high Al(12-14%) TWIP or SIMPLEX steels having high strength and formability with lower density have been developed but owing to high Mn content, it adds hugely to the cost. It also poses manufacturing problems at industrial scale and thus not produced commercially in large scale. The density of automotive grade steel is around 7.8g/cc but with every 1% addition of Al there is a decrease in density of 1.3%. So, here lies a scope to develop a high strength steel with high Al in range of 8-12% but keeping the Mn content limited in the range of 7-12 %. With such steel, a density of 6.8-7.0 g/cc (i.e. ~10% reduction in density) can be achieved. The proposal aims to develop such steel by suitable alloy design and critically controlling the subsequent thermo-mechanical processing. The microstructure of the developed steel would be combination of ferrite, austenite with fine scale precipitation of K-carbide(FeMn)3AlC and/or B2 ordered phases(FeMnAl). The inter-critical annealing schedule after cold rolling plays a significant role for the development of the above microstructure. The precipitation of brittle intermetallics would be controlled to obtain very fine nano scale precipitation such that it would add to the strength, rather deteriorating the properties. The proposal in the module-2, aims to investigate and understand the the precipitation behavior of the intermetallics with different heat treatment schedule, its morphology, size and coherency in the ferrite-austenite matrix.

8NML/IPSG/2017/2018/72138 (OLP 0328)2017-10-012018-09-30Dr. Sabita GhoshR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMicrostructural Characterisation

Title: Study of structure-property correlation to comprehend cementite dissolution during wire drawing process

Abstract: Improvement of mechanical properties through severe plastic deformed steels have great technological importance as high-strength materials. Amongst them, heavily cold drawn pearlitic steel wires exhibit very high tensile strength. These wires are used to bear mechanical loads or for electricity and telecommunication signals, tire cord, springs, wire rope, suspension bridge cable etc. They are typically produced by drawing wire of approximately the eutectoid composition to an intermediate diameter to produce a fine perlitic microstructure followed by cold drawing to introduce high strain. Usually wire drawings require more than one draw, through successively smaller dies to reach the desired size. The process of wire drawing changes material’s properties due to introduction of enormous strain during cold drawing. Often intermediate anneals are required to counter the effects of cold working and to forward further drawing. Strength increases as a function of strains. During plastic deformation of pearlitic steel, partial dissolution of cementite has been reported, which affects the mechanical properties of the drawn steel wires, although cementite is only one-eighth of the total volume of pearlite. Therefore the aim of the present proposal is to investigate the deformed microstructure of pearlite and to study the structure-property correlation to establish the micro-mechanism of cementite dissolution

9NML/IPSG/2017/2018/73308 ()2017-06-012018-09-30Gopi Kishor MandalThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringSolidification & Casting

Title: Simulation of thin strip casting

Abstract: To compensate the environmental degradation and energy losses, steel plants will need to use new efficient technologies capable of supplying steel strip products of high quality at low cost. Direct strip casting technology has the potential of producing steel strips at a greatly reduced cost. However, there is a high emphasis on improvement in surface quality, geometry and properties of the cast strip. The larger aim is to develop a much wider range of advanced steels from this technology. For this technology, the conditions are drastically different to conventional processing that the solidification and subsequent microstructural evolution is yet not understood. High casting speed and rapid solidification of strips demand an accurate control of process parameters. The main focus of present study is to generate a fundamental knowledge required to develop steels with higher levels of both strength and formability. The high rate of heat extraction from the melt through the rolls results in faster solidification and produces as-cast steel microstructures radically different to those produced by conventional routes. Therefore, in the present investigation, molten steel with desired composition will be cast as thin strips (3-5 mm) in water cooled copper mould in order to obtain coarse grained solidification structure akin to strip cast sheets. The post-solidification microstructure controls the mechanical properties of the final product. Additionally, the challenge for strip casting is the single pass high deformation to achieve the properties. Therefore, the current investigation also aims to establish hot working schedule based on thin strip casting process parameters that will link the recrystallised austenite to the as-cast austenite grain size and deformation conditions.

10NML/IPSG/2017/2018/77759 (OLP 0325)2017-10-032018-09-28Soni Scholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringSurface Modification

Title: Development of hard and optically transparent nanocomposite coatings for wear and optoelectronic applications. (Module I): Effect of deposition conditions on mechanical and optical behaviour of Al-S-N thin films.

Abstract: Hardness and optical transparency are the basic requirements of an Optical Protective Coating used in architectural windows, solar water heating devices, transparent windows for furnaces etc. AlN is a hard material and transparent in the visible range of light making it suitable for such applications. Si addition in AlN results in further enhancement of its hardness and also provides additional oxidation resistance due to expected Al-Si-N nanocomposite microstructure. Moreover due to field emission and wide band gap of AlN, these coatings can also be employed in Field Emission Devices and Light Emitting Diodes. This work aims to develop Al-Si-N nanocomposite coating with sound mechanical as well as optical properties and understanding the underlying mechanisms behind there fabrication by investigating there structural properties through XRD, SEM, TEM etc. and correlating it with the film mechanical and optical properties as the behavior of coating is dependent on its microstructure which ultimately depends on its growth conditions during deposition. Therefore by tailoring the microstructure we can tune the Al-Si-N thin film properties as per the application requirement.

11NML/IPSG/2017/2018/78053 (OLP 0297)2017-10-012018-09-30Premkumar MurugaiyanScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Development of High Induction amorphous based soft magnetic alloys-Module II

Abstract: Amorphous based Electrical steels are new class of soft magnetic materials with high electrical resistivity, low coercivity, low core loss and finds extensive applications as core material (transformers), stators motors, generators), Magneto static shielding, choke coils, actuators etc. The drawback of amorphous based material is its low magnetic induction (Bs) due to alloying additions for amorphous structure stabilization. The present investigation is aimed at alloy development, containing ferromagnetic Fe as base element in the range 80-85 atomic%. The present study involves in series of alloy modifications targeting optimal ratio of metalloid, grain growth inhibitor, nucleating elements and achieving magnetic induction greater than 1.5Tesla and good DC soft magnetic properties. Based on the theoretical results, Phosphorous and Boron will be the suitable metalloid for the high Fe system. Alloy optimization studies will be carried out to achieve optimal combination of high Ms, low Hc and 𝜆. The Alloy development also envisages partial crystallization and investigate the nanocrystalline effect on magnetization process. The obtained structural and soft magnetic results will be formulated in Random Anisotropy Model (RAM) to understand the compliance of developed alloys with existing model.

12NML/IPSG/2017/2018/7819 (OLP 0305)2017-09-302018-10-31Minal ShahThematic ResearchExpress Track(3 Months)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Study on Evolution of low temperature nanobainitic steel-Module 2

Abstract: With the increasing demand on energy saving, it is of necessity to develop high performance low cost steels having extraordinary high strength along with good toughness. The possibility of obtaining steels with nano size laths (20-50nm) of bainite by isothermal transformation treatment at low temperature is set forth. In this respect detail work has to be done to accelerate the kinetic of bainitic transformation by processing parameters and economical alloying elements. Role of Cu has to be studied on kinetics and Bs temperature on nanobainitic transformation. Continuous cooled bainite has to studied to accelerate the kinetics. Modeling and Simulation of Isothermal and Continuous cooled bainite through Matlab has to be done.

13NML/IPSG/2017/2018/84874 ()2017-10-012018-09-30Rohit Buddham MeshramThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & EnvironmentKnowledge Management

Title: Development of Expertise in Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) at CSIR-NML

Abstract: LCA is a decision-making/supporting tool. It acknowledges all stages of a product's life and its environmental, economic and social implications. It is also used as an input for policy decisions, corporate management, product development, marketing, environmentally preferable purchasing programs, and carbon or greenhouse gas monitoring. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the all the phases of the production process, analyzing the energy and materials consumption through LCA method integrated with risk and social assessments, environmental externality studies, and geospatially focused impact assessments using Software. Through this proposal, we would like to initiate LCA for industry/organizations to compare designs, products or services, and also its applications to waste management activities at CSIR-NML Jamshedpur.

14NML/IPSG/2017/2018/9790 (OLP 0324)2017-09-012018-08-31NIMAI HALDARR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringMaterials Joining

Title: Friction stir welding of dissimilar material Cu-Al using cryo-treated tool

Abstract: FSW is now a very popular solid state welding process for joining two similar or dissimilar metals (ferrous & nonferrous). But still researchers are facing a lot of challenges in joining two dissimilar materials for their quite different characteristics, ingredients, melting temperature etc. So core area of my project is concerned with the FSW of two nonferrous metals like Al and Cu. Very few researches have been carried out regarding this type of dissimilar welding. This welding will be characterized by Design approach statistical design of experiment technique for maximizing tensile and hardness test, surface roughness, Mechanical characterization etc.

15NML/IPSG/2018/2018/19891 ()2018-07-032018-07-31Beena KuamriThematic ResearchExpress Track(3 Months)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: test for expense module

Abstract: test for expense module

16NML/IPSG/2018/2018/63470 ()2018-04-162018-10-15Sarmishtha PalitThematic ResearchFast track(6 months)Materials EvaluationNon-destructive Evaluation

Title: IoT for high temperature processes in a hazardous environment in steel making

Abstract: With Internet of things (IoT) and Big Data becoming important, it is perhaps time for us to look how these can be leveraged to bring new understanding in the process monitoring in hazardous industrial environment. IoT is now getting most its applications in smart home, smart city and to some extent in traffic and security. Capabilities of IoT are far ahead of its current applications and can be used in many critical engineering sectors. Industry 4.0 enables the real potential of IoT and allows the exchange of critical information among automated machines to optimize the overall performance of any Industry. In this proposal, we are going to explore the use of IoT for temperature monitoring of blow pipes used in blast furnace using FBG as a sensor. Blow pipe is an essential component of the hot blast system of a blast furnace. It is located between the bustle pipe and tuyere. The construction of the blow pipe is a two piece component which has an elbow and a cone section The hot blast air (1200 C approx.) is blown and distributed at the bottom of blast furnace through the straight pipes, blow pipes and eventually the tuyeres. During operation, any defects in the refractory expose the blow pipe to high temperature which can lead to sudden failure of blow pipe. This can lead to sudden failure in the plant which will eventually lead to huge production loss. In this project temperature data as collected from the different locations of the blow pipe will be accessed over the server and as the temperature will reach the set critical value, an alarm will be created at the receiver PC. This will help the operator at the receiving end to control the operation of blow pipe which will ultimately help to avoid catastrophic failure.

17NML/IPSG/2018/2018/73421 (OLP 0340)2018-05-012018-07-31D.C.SauTechnology DevelopmentExpress Track(3 Months)Extractive MetallurgyPyrometallurgy

Title: Iron oxide fines conversion to iron powder at low temperature in counter current reactor Iron oxide fines conversion to iron powder at low temperature

Abstract: India continues to emerge as a major iron and steel producing country in the world and is likely to enhance its position further, once the National Steel policy is fully realized. However, increase in steel production is likely to strain the natural resources and calls for technology to utilize the waste. Blast furnace ironmaking is still and is likely to remain in near future the most dominant route for producing hot metal. It is known that for the production of one tonne of sized ore, the feed for blast furnace, almost an equivalent amount of undersize is generated. A major part of this undersize is converted to useful feed stock for blast furnace through sintering . However, extra fineness of waste makes a significant fraction of this undersize unsuitable for sintering leading to 18 to 25% of slime. Such materials during washing of run of mines (ROM) ore adds up to the quantity of unutilized/underutilized fines. This fraction is of concern due to impact on ecology as well as loss of huge iron value. It has been observed that none of the existing processes could offer a commercially matured technology as an alternate to blast furnace iron making and thus energy intensive pelletization of fines and their subsequent reduction at relatively high temperature appears to be the only viable option, currently available. Thermodynamic consideration of gaseous reduction of iron oxide indicates that it is possible to convert iron oxide fines directly to metallic iron below 570oC. A few laboratory studies indicated the feasibility of such low temperature (below 700 C) reduction within a reasonable time. Preliminary gaseous reduction experiments were conducted in fixed bed and fluidized bed at 10g and 200 g scale respectively and achieved more than 99 % metallization . In this proposed work, the proof of concept for gaseous reduction of iron oxide fines to iron powder in counter current reactor will be attempted.

18NML/IPSG/2018/2018/94784 (OLP 0338)2018-05-012018-11-30AbhilashTechnology DevelopmentFast track(6 months)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Development of process for extraction and separation of REEs from FCC catalysts

Abstract: Spent FCC catalysts from petrochemical industries doesn't find any applications except for being sold out to recyclers and the merit of La and Ce present is often neglected. Keeping in view, a feasibility study was done to extract these REEs from spent FCCs obtained from Indian PSU oil companies in India. Keeping in view of good degree of separation, a technological package is proposed to be developed to extract and separate rare earth elements from the present samples of FCCs at kg scale, and testing the residue for suitability towards geopolymer applications.

19NML/IPSG/2018/2018/98325 ()2018-04-162018-10-15SUDIP KUNDUTechnology DevelopmentFast track(6 months)R&D ManagementInformation Management

Title: Development of a mobile based app to know the corrosion rate of structural metals/ alloy in India

Abstract: In order to disseminate the available knowledge on atmospheric corrosion and also for its commercial exploitation, the present project is aimed to develop a mobile based app for expression of the regional corrosion rate (atmospheric) of various metals/ alloy in India. Apart from the obvious commercial applications such as materials selection (especially related to structural/archeological) and materials ranking from corrosion resistance viewpoint, available data and knowledge can be popularized through the ‘Mobile app’ which has proven capability in doing so.

20NML/IPSG/2018/2019/10126 (OLP 0344)2018-04-012019-03-31susanta kumar nathThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & EnvironmentMetallurgical/Mineral Waste Utilisation

Title: Synthesis of dry geopolymer cement using industrial byproducts and waste

Abstract: Geopolymer cement has been successfully developed by mixing of alumino-silicate powder with liquid alkali solution. Although some difficulties are there with alkali solution for large scale production. These activator are corrosive and health hazardous, and would be difficult to transport and to use for bulk production. Therefore dry geopolymer has been tried to develop. Dry geopolymer basically a mix of precursor powder and dry activator which acts as cement when water is added. However there are some issues with dry geopolymer and very little information available in literatures. Strength development of dry geopolymer is very slow and does not reaches to desirable level, heat of hydration is higher than liquid activator, and self setting characteristics of dry powder when contact with water. This work aims to produce a dry geopolymer powder mix which is as reactive as cement. To improve the reactivity different approaches such as increase in glass content, mechanical activation of dry powder, microwave heating etc. will be attempted. Organic polymer will be added to improve the geopolymer cement properties. Process parameters such as alkali amount, water to binder ratio will be optimized to enhance the reactivity.

21NML/IPSG/2018/2019/1069 ()2018-04-162019-04-15 K GOPALA KRISHNAThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Effect of build direction on properties of metallic components produced by direct digital manufacturing (3D metal printing) technique

Abstract: Direct digital manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is an additive manufacturing process, where the engineering components are produced directly from their digital designs. The process mainly involves, building the component, layer by layer from their metal/alloy powders, using either selective laser melting (SLM) or direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) techniques. Since the process involves, building the components, layer by layer, there exists a need to understand effect of process parameters such as build direction, built speed etc., on resultant properties of the components, and also to identify anisotropy if any. The present study is aimed at printing 3 dimensional monolithic block and preparing standard fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) test specimens using direct digital manufacturing from stainless steel (AISI 304/316) powders and to correlate the resultant properties with the build direction.

22NML/IPSG/2018/2019/16135 ()2018-04-012019-03-31Ranjeet Kumar SinghScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Study of Particulate Flow in Centrifugal Force Field with Continuous Fluid Current (Module-II)

Abstract: Separation of particles in centrifugal concentrator is depend upon the differential settling velocity of particles. Settling velocity of particle is depend upon fluid profile inside the concentrator, operation la parameter, physical properties of particles such as size, shape, density and design parameter of concentrator. In order to understand the settling kinetics of particles inside the centrifugal concentrator, A mathematical model will be developed through first principle of force balance equation. Motion of particles will be modeled as a discrete phase, described by the Newton’s laws of motion on an individual particle scale, and the flow of fluid (liquid) is treated as a continuum phase, described by the analytical solution of Navier-Stokes equations. Effect of design parameter, operation parameter and physical properties of particle on settling performance will be estimated through the developed mathematical model.

23NML/IPSG/2018/2019/2010 ()2018-04-012019-03-31Kalicharan HembromThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Design and optimization study of flotation process using Modeling and Simulation analysis

Abstract: Flotation is a process of separation of valuable minerals from waste gangue minerals based on the difference in the surface properties of the minerals. Describing the flotation process on the basis of fundamental relationship is extremely difficult. A wide range of mathematical models are available for both conventional and column flotation and many of them are based on the first order kinetics. As a first requirement, the model must be able to describe the recovery response of the various component of the feed into the concentrate and tailings of the flotation cell. The recovery of a floatable component can be calculated using the eqn. R=Kτ/(1+Kτ) (where K = flotation rate constant, τ = residence time). Since flotation is a multivariate process due to which it is extremely difficult to estimate the value of the flotation rate constant accurately. Typically flotation rate constant is a function of particle characteristics (ore mineralogy, particle liberation and particle size, reagent dosage, pulp chemistry, etc) and machine characteristics (air flowrate, impeller design, cell design, impeller speed, etc). Objective of the present work is to determine the particle characteristics in terms of single index (ore floatability) and machine characteristics in terms of bubble size, superficial gas velocity and gas holdup. The above estimated parameters would be used in developing a suitable model for design and optimization purpose.

24NML/IPSG/2018/2019/27574 ()2018-04-022019-04-02Aarti KumariScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Scientific Investigation on Hydro and Electro-chemical dissolution of scrap magnets of wind turbines for the recovery of rare earth metals and other valuable products (Module III: Electrochemical effect on selective dissolution of rare earths from scrap magnet of wind turbines)

Abstract: The application of NdFeB magnets is increasing continuously for the miniaturization of product and development of clean energy. Due to increasing demand of rare earths, spent NdFeB magnet has emerged as potential secondary resource of rare earths comprised of Neodymium, Praseodymium, Dysprosium etc. In Module 1, spent NdFeB magnet received from a wind turbine industry was characterized and analyzed. Leaching studies were carried for selective dissolution of rare earths from spent NdFeB magnet. At the optimized leaching condition after roasting, 98% recovery of rare earths were obtained. In Module II, separation studies of rare earths were carried out from the leach liquor of spent NdFeB magnet using solvent extraction process. In Module III, it is planned to study the feasibility of selective leaching of rare earths from spent magnet by electrochemical dissolution. Theoretically, difference in the reduction potential of rare earth element i.e REE (Nd) and non-REE (Fe) is large, ~ 1.8 V which drives the idea for selective electrochemical dissolution of rare earth metal from scrap magnet. Electrochemical dissolution can offer the additional advantage of process control with potential (E) and current density in addition to the pH, which can play a major role for selective recovery. Apart from that expensive pre-treatment steps such as demagnetization or roasting can be avoided by direct electrochemical dissolution of scrap. Therefore, the aim of this module is to investigate the various aspect of electrochemical dissolution process of NdFeB magnet which has not been explored yet.

25NML/IPSG/2018/2019/38153 ()2018-04-012019-03-31KRISHNA KUMARScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyProcess Modeling

Title: Heat transfer modelling of condensation behavior of metal (Mg) vapors during distillation for quantitative analysis of condenser design (module II)

Abstract: During distillation the condensation behavior of metal vapors is of paramount importance to achieve desired purity, yield and production efficiency, for which an optimum design of condenser is critically required. In module I, along with some ideal cases of filmwise condensation, the dropwise condensation has been attempted in various forms. Industrially, film condensation is most economical and suitable mode of condensation. Module-II has been proposed to carry out heat and mass transfer modelling of film condensation of a stationary, pure, saturated metal (Mg, Zn, Na) vapor on an isothermal vertical condenser surface, incorporating various realistic issues of condensation phenomena. The formulation of the problem will be in conjunction with classical Nusselt theory, initially, considering only significant thermal resistances. Further, the single phase model will be extended to address the two-phase boundary layer flow problem in laminar film condensation of metal vapours, incorporating the effect of the shear forces at the liquid-vapour interface present due to induced motions of the metal (Mg, Zn) vapor. This complex two-phase flow problem and the associated heat transfer will be modelled using a coupled multi-physics approach. Non-condensable gases markedly reduce the condensation heat transfer rates. The effect of non-condensable gas on laminar film condensation of a liquid metal on an isothermal vertical surface with forced vapor flow will also be modeled keeping in view of its practical/industrial implications. Experimental investigation will be carried out to extensively characterize the condensation behavior of the metal vapour for model validation and attempts will be made to develop a heat transfer correlation using similarity analysis and dimensional methods.

26NML/IPSG/2018/2019/52940 ()2018-04-012019-03-31Ashok KScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyProcess Modeling

Title: Control and analysis of non-metallic inclusion in electrical steel - module 4

Abstract: Residual non-metallic inclusions present in liquid steel are one of the causes of process interruptions during transfer of liquid steel, solidification, post processing of solidified steel. Presence of residual non-metallic inclusions also ultimately affects the end properties of the steel. Specific to electrical steel, presence of non-metallic inclusions mostly annoys its performance during magnetization and demagnetization process via, creating barkhaunsen noise. The control of amount, size, morphology and chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions is highly essential to produce extra clean electrical steel. Therefore, one of the main objectives of this module is to study the influence of carryover slag on inclusions during refining of high silicon electrical steel with different synthetic slag.

27NML/IPSG/2018/2019/54157 (OLP 0345)2018-04-012019-03-31Mr. Gaurav Kumar BansalScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Development of Low Carbon Bainitic Steels (Module-I)

Abstract: The lower bainitic transformation in high and medium carbon steel has shown to achieve excellent strength-ductility combinations due to presence of nanobainite (20-40 nm). However, transformation kinetics has been found to be slow due to low temperatures involved. Subsequently, researches on low carbon steel (0.25-0.35 wt.%) with enhanced substitutional elements have resulted in coalescence of bainitic plates (120-150 nm) that lead to reduction in toughness of steel. Also, the reasons behind such coalescence are not fully understood. The possible options to further refine the bainite are modification in chemical composition of steel, altering the heat treatment schedule and controlling the prior austenite grain size through deformation of austenite. Also, the possibilities to achieve nano-bainite in steel containing carbon < 0.2 wt.% has not been given due consideration. However, the low carbon content allows broader application avenues. Therefore, the present work aims at designing a suitable alloy with carbon content < 0.2 wt.% and to study the bainite transformation through various processing routes so as to achieve highly refined bainite.

28NML/IPSG/2018/2019/55166 (OLP 0342)2018-04-012019-03-31Ammasi AThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & EnvironmentMetallurgical/Mineral Waste Utilisation

Title: A Process Development for Production of Glass-Ceramics Products from Metallurgical Slags

Abstract: Generally, glass– ceramics are polycrystalline materials, which is prepared by the controlled crystallization of glasses in two-stage manufacturing technique. However, utilization of raw ore for glass ceramics materials may be energy intensive or non-availability of sufficient quantity of raw materials for fulfilling the demands of glass ceramics products (i.e. huge consumption of ore resources). There is an increasing interest has developed in the preparation of glass-ceramics using metallurgical slag as the raw materials. The utilization (or recycling) of metallurgical slag into some useful applications is a potential step for cost saving and pollution free environments and availability of lands etc. Besides, it may be uneconomical to produce glass-ceramics in the conventional method (two-stage) which involves cooling (quenching) of the liquid pool to ambient temperature then heated to the high temperature for controlling the crystalline phase. Therefore, it has been thought of producing a glass ceramics materials in single stage method where direct cooling to ambient temperature it may be avoided. We have thought of using metallurgical slags (either BF slag or Cu Smelting Slag etc) as a raw material for preparation glass – ceramics materials in this project for potential application. For the glass – ceramics manufacturing process, initially metallurgical slag will be melted either in EAF or induction furnace to form a liquid pool then liquid slag will be cooled below the certain temperature which may either finish of glassy phase formation or the start of crystallization formation at the appropriate cooling rate and temperature for a particular composition to obtain the required amount of glassy and crystalline phase. It is very important to control the cooling rate, temperature and composition such way that required amorphous and crystalline phase may be obtained by single stage glass – ceramic manufacturing techniques.

29NML/IPSG/2018/2019/55898 ()2018-04-162019-04-15Swapna DeyScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringCorrosion

Title: Hydrogen assisted degradation and fracture in pipeline steel

Abstract: Pipeline steels are widely used for transportation and distribution of oil and natural gas for long distances, and the hydrogen assisted degradation is one of the issues that can affect the structural integrity of these pipelines during long term operation. Pipeline steels can pick-up hydrogen during transport of sour crude oil and other petroleum products. The presence of H2S, CO2 and brine in crude oil not only enhance the corrosion rate but also lead to environmental fracture assisted by enhanced uptake of hydrogen (H) atoms in steels. Moreover, external environmental conditions cause free corroding processes, where hydrogen can be generated on the metal surface as a result of the cathodic counterpart of the anodic dissolution reaction. Furthermore, under service conditions when cathodic protection system is in place, hydrogen charging of pipeline steels is also possible. As result, there is concern of structural integrity of aging buried pipelines having cathodic protection. The proposed work will assess the effect of hydrogen absorption and permeation in pipeline steel by cathodic hydrogen charging in NACE solution and in near neutral pH (NS4) solution, which simulate real operating environment. Therefore, the aim of the study is to obtain realistic data for development of hydrogen embrittlement criteria of steels employed in oil/gas industries. Corrosion is one of the most predominant causes of pipeline failures in oil and gas production, which are related to the physical and chemical factors as well as environmental conditions. Therefore, the study of corrosion by electrochemical methods is also necessary. This work will investigate the corrosion behaviour of pipeline steel by different electrochemical methods (potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)). The proposed research work will extend to study the effects of hydrogen on fracture toughness of the material with the aim to provide an explanation for the hydrogen effect on fracture resistance.

30NML/IPSG/2018/2019/60291 ()2018-04-012019-03-31Murugesan A PScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringMetal Forming

Title: Thermo -mechanical processing parameters on micro structures and hot deformation behavior of molybdenum added low carbon micro alloyed steel (Module 4)

Abstract: Line pipe steels, based on API standard, up to strength level of X70 grade are commercially made and being extensively used as structural material in oil and petroleum industries due to their excellent mechanical properties, like tensile strength, toughness and weldability. Although efforts have been made at industrial as well as laboratory level to develop materials beyond the strength level of X70, there are still no defined rule for composition design and suitable thermo-mechanical controlled processing (TMCP) schedule. The role of addition of Molybdenum (Mo) in low carbon micro-alloyed steel, under influence of deformation schedule around Tnr (Non recrysllaization temperature), finish rolling temperatures and cooling rate on development of beneficial micro structures (bainite, acicular ferrite) as per morphology of micro structural constituents by optical and scanning electron micro graphs have been studied. Hot deformation and its recrystallization behavior over a wide range of deformation temperatures (1100-900°C) at different strain rates (0.001 to 10) of low carbon micro-alloyed steels has also been studied in last modules. However, the mechanical properties of investigated steels are mainly governed by relative proportion of individual micro structural constituents (granular/lower bainite, acicular/polygonal ferrite, M/A constituents). The main objective of present module is to quantitatively analyse the micro structures and their micro mechanism of the samples processed at different TMCP conditions of investigated steels.

31NML/IPSG/2018/2019/60811 (OLP 0334)2018-04-012018-09-30Dr R.K SahuTechnology DevelopmentFast track(6 months)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Graphene supercapacitor with energy density close to Li-ion battery

Abstract: Electric vehicle is being strongly considered as a replacement for conventional vehicle powered by gasoline / diesel in order to reduce the greenhouse emission gases and to meet the energy crisis. Recently, many countries including India have released their deadline for implementation of electric vehicle completely. Electric vehicle is propelled by electric motor using energy stored in rechargeable battery. The average energy required by electric vehicle is 10kWh per 100 km. However, electric vehicle powered by battery has some issues that need to be solved prior to the implementation. First of all, it takes nearly 6 to 8 hrs for charging of the battery, which is not user-friendly. Moreover, the power density of battery is low caused by high internal resistance that impedes the acceleration of vehicle. Besides, the cycle life of battery for charging and discharging is poor, thereby; the overall running cost of electric vehicle is higher than the conventional vehicle. Such problems of electric vehicles can be overcome by using graphene supercapacitor in the place of battery, owing to the outstanding properties of graphene supercapacitor; high power density, ability to charging fast and retention of efficiency up to a million number of charge and discharge cycles. However, the main shortcoming of graphene supercapacitor is that the energy density is significantly low (~10 Wh/kg) compared to the lithium-ion battery ~ 200 Wh/kg. In other words, graphene supercapacitor operated electric vehicle will have nearly 20 times lower mileage than the battery operated electric vehicle under the same circumstance. Therefore, it is a big challenge to develop a graphene supercpacitor with energy density close to that of Li-ion battery.

32NML/IPSG/2018/2019/62276 ()2018-04-162019-10-16Ganesh ChalavadiTechnology DevelopmentFast track(6 months)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Development of indigenous Air Stratifier for dry benfeciation

Abstract: Project Abstract Wet processing is commonly practiced for beneficiation of Coal. Dewatering of fines is an expensive operation. Rejects, in the form of slurry containing fines, cause environmental problems. With the implementation of dry beneficiation in physical beneficiation of Coal, environmental issues like slurry disposal, high cost involving downstream process like dewatering of products can be minimized. Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CBFC) in thermal power plants is a relatively new technology with the ability to achieve lower emission of pollutants. Besides, CBFC provides a greater flexibility in burning a wide range of coal and other fuels all this without compromising efficiency and with reduced pollution. CFBC uses crushed coal of 3 to 6 mm size. The existing dry beneficiation systems like air tables, AKAFLOW, FGX etc. are not applicable in this size range. So for dry beneficiation of coal in this size range an indigenous dry beneficiation unit is targeted for fabrication and experimentation. This indigenous dry beneficiation has the coal feed subjected to air pulsation there by causing density stratification and thereby causing physical beneficiation of coal.

33NML/IPSG/2018/2019/66115 ()2018-04-162019-04-15Paromita BiswasScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)OthersPetrography & Process Mineralogy


Abstract: Indian iron mining industry is currently mining the high-grade ores (more than 58 wt% Fe). However, the iron ore being a non-renewable natural resource, the reserve of good quality ore is ever dwindling. As per the notification of Indian Bureau of Mines, Government of India (T-45031/ CGBM/2007 (PF) dated October 2009 the threshold value as 45% Fe for hematitic ore and 35% Fe for hematitic siliceous ore is fixed for Goa. But it is remarkable to note that the marketable iron ore as recorded in the IBM Mineral Year Books of successive years is above 60% Fe because the industry is yet to adopt the beneficiation strategy in full swing. On the contrary, the taconite type iron ore with a grade 25% to 35% Fe is still in use in USA and Canada by adopting suitable processing and pelletisation technology. The first step in the process of such adaptation is proper characterization of relatively low-grade iron ore deposits. In this context the aim of this project is to characterize the low grade ore and fines deposit of Jharkhand – Orissa sector with a view to understand their effect on recovery. The ore- gangue association in the iron ore deposits of eastern India indicate complex geochemical and geological history of the ore deposits (Clout, 2003 and Morris, 1985). These iron ore deposits are rich in high grade ore but also contain medium to low grade ore having high alumina and silica contents (1-7%). In case of non-availability of high grade ore, it is necessary to tap on the reserve of comparatively low grade ore to meet future requirements. The low grade ore can be beneficiated to remove the impurities prior to use which represents a big challenge for Indian mineral processing industries. The nature of various iron ore received from different areas, even from a single mine would be different. Each type area has its own typical mineralogical and textural characteristics that respond to specific beneficiation technique. The choice of beneficiation technique depends upon the nature of gangue minerals present in the ore and their textural association with ore minerals. So, the characterization techniques play an important role in finding out suitable beneficiation techniques. Common industrial practices do not incorporate a comprehensive characterization, leading to an inefficient beneficiation process which could be optimized by careful physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization. As average grade of presently exploited iron ore is 58% Fe, the beneficiation strategies are limited. The ores with 40-58% Fe are still unclassified and the volume is not estimated. Their mineralogical, textural and geochemical information is lacking. Hence, the main purpose of the project is to identify and classify the iron ore with less than 58% Fe to better understand the complex texture and their implications for down-stream mineral processing. The proposed study will provide the much needed mineralogical data for the low-grade ores that can help to select appropriate beneficiation scheme.

34NML/IPSG/2018/2019/66261 (OLP 0346)2018-04-012019-03-31Avanish Kumar ChandanScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of high entropy alloys at ambient and sub-ambient temperatures (Module 1)

Abstract: Owing to the vast latitude offered by the High Entropy Alloys (HEAs) in terms of versatility in alloy design and microstructure, the research in HEAs is trending worldwide. Since their advent more than a decade ago, HEAs have been attracting tremendous research attention due to attractive properties over conventional engineering materials, such as ultra-high fracture toughness exceeding that of most metals and alloys, excellent strength comparable to that of structural ceramics and metallic glasses, superconductivity, adequate corrosion resistance etc. The equi-atomic, fully FCC structure, FeMnCrCoNi alloy is one of the most successful HEA with exceptional mechanical properties at cryo temperatures. However, the room temperature properties of the same are not attractive. The reason for lucrative mechanical properties of this alloy is the occurrence of nano-twins at cryo temperature but not at room temperature during deformation. Deformation behaviour of FCC system is principally governed by stacking fault energy (SFE). SFE, on the other hand, is dependent on the composition of the system and service temperature. The present study aims to design new lean alloys based on the SFE of the resulting alloy. The effect of composition vis a vis SFE on the deformation behaviour of the alloy will be studied. Role of various SFE dependent deformation characteristics on the final mechanical properties at ambient and sub-ambient temperatures will be investigated.

35NML/IPSG/2018/2019/66950 ()2018-04-162019-03-31Sunati MohantyScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Study of dewatering behaviour of fine particles in hydrocyclone

Abstract: In mineral processing industries, most of the separation processes involve substantial quantities of water and the final concentrate/tailing has to be separated from pulp in which water-solid ratio is high. So dewatering of fine particles, separation of solid from liquid is an important aspect in mineral processing. The dewatering screening efficiency decreases as the fineness of particles increases. In this regard, keeping the advantage of centrifugal sedimentation, hydrocyclone is found to be the efficient solid-liquid separator. By the proper choice of dimension and operating condition, it is possible for a hydrocyclone to act as thickener. So understanding of the operating and design parameters that influence the dewatering efficiency of hydrocyclone is required. In this proposal it is aimed at optimization study of parameters influencing the dewatering efficiency of hydrocyclone in fine scale. However, any design modification which can improve the dewatering efficiency compared to the existing hydrocyclone may be of interest of this proposal.

36NML/IPSG/2018/2019/7252 (OLP 0336)2018-04-162018-10-15Dr. Sanjay AgarwalTechnology DevelopmentFast track(6 months)Extractive MetallurgyPyrometallurgy

Title: Production of Fe-Ni/Co-Mo metallic alloy and alumina rich slag from Ni-Mo/Co-Mo spent catalysts in electric arc furnace

Abstract: Utilization of spent catalysts in chemical and petroleum industries is a key concern as these are loaded with heavy metal oxide and sulphide, which render it unusable and, hence discarded. In addition, direct land disposal of these catalyst is difficult due to their metal leachability and pyrophoricity, which, in addition, poses an enormous threat to environment. These spent catalysts have valuable metallic content viz Ni, Co, Mo which can be extracted economically. Therefore, its utilization is of considerable importance. In this regard, attempt has been made which involves hydrometallurgical recovery of heavy metals, which, however, incorporates multiple complex steps; thus making the overall process uneconomical in small scale operation. Considering this limitation, pyrometallurgical processing of these catalyst could be a promising way for its utilization. These spent catalyst consists of metals in form of its oxide, thus, carbothermic reduction route could be a possibility to obtain alloys while rejecting impurities in slag. Through this proposal, we intend to develop a carbothermic based reduction route for treatment of spent catalyst to produce a saleable Co/Ni, Mo-Fe alloy and alumina rich slag to be useable as building material in a 50 kVA electric arc furnace. In addition, the process parameters in an EAF will be optimized in terms of energy consumption and metallic yield.

37NML/IPSG/2018/2019/8681 ()2018-04-162018-10-15Y UshaTechnology DevelopmentFast track(6 months)Extractive MetallurgyProcess Modeling

Title: Modeling and optimization of water cooled copper drum channel of melt spinning technique for the production of amorphous alloys

Abstract: Amorphous alloys ribbons are produced via rapid quenching route wherein the cooling rate of 10^6 K/s is required in order to ensure the amorphous characteristics of the alloy. This is, more in general, achieved by using internal water cooled copper drum, over the surface of which, rapid solidification takes place. Such high cooling rate is achieved due to high heat extraction behavior of copper (high thermal conductivity) based water cooled drum. Thus, study of drum cooling is pivotal to ensure the characteristics of amorphous ribbon. In addition, other critical parameters viz. Fluid dynamics of the alloy, drum speed, drum thickness, rotation speed etc are to be considered for the design of overall system. Thus, through this proposal we intend to optimize the drum thickness and internal water flow channel specs including hollow shaft dimensions and water pressure drop during flow.