Ongoing Projects

S.No. Number Start Date End Date Project Leader Category Type Core Area Sub Area
1NML/IPSG/2017/2018/12155(OLP 113603)2017-06-012018-05-31Dr Krishnendu MukherjeeR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMaterials Modeling

Title: A crystal plasticity based computational materials engineering approach to design novel microstructure suitable for development of 3rd generation AHSS

Abstract: Opportunities exist to apply computational model to guide the development of third generation of AHSS. This would be a suitable candidate material for a combined approach of computational materials engineering and experimental based simulation. In literature it is mentioned that the third generation of AHSS may contain several phases, e.g., martensite, retained austenite, ferrite. The volume fraction and distribution of phases may be varied to achieve the strength and ductility in the level of 3rd generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS). The effect of these parameters on the strength and ductility of steels may be a good topic for computational materials engineering approach. For this purpose a crystal plasticity (CP)based approach is proposed be undertaken to take into account the effect of the local orientation of the phases on the local deformation and which will in turn effect the global deformation. A novel spectral solver will be used based on the fast fourier transformation (FFT) algorithm to simulate the crystal plasticity model. This exercise may be useful to design new microstructures for third generation AHSS. The volume fraction, distribution, grain size, orientation of different phases can be varied in the simulation and the effect of this variation on the stress-strain behaviour may be simulated through CPFFT. This may lead to tailoring of microstructure according to the required mechanical properties of the steel. The structure of the crystal-plasticity based constitutive model is the core of crystal plasticity modelling. The phenomenological dislocation slip is usually used as constitutive model in the literature. But, other physics based constitutive models may be required for the deformation of complex microstructure of third generation AHSS (e.g. austenite to martensite transformation). Finally this approach may build up the expertise to perform crystal plasticity modelling at NML using the novel spectral solver method. The investigated complex microstructures in the CPFFT simulation may be realized in the annealing simulators or thermomechanical simulator in industrially viable route.

2NML/IPSG/2017/2018/12899(OLP 113604)2017-06-012018-05-31Dr. Shantanu V. MadgeR&DFull tenure(1 year)OthersOthers

Title: Microstructure-Mechanical Properties Correlations in 3D Printed Steels

Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM), also called 3D printing, is an emerging field and it is of both technological and scientific interest. Steels are used ubiquitously, hence AM of steels is also of practical importance. Here, we propose to investigate AM of 316L stainless steel, using the laser bed additive manufacturing facility at ARCI Hyderabad. The optimum laser processing parameters will be identified, and correlated with the resulting microstructures. Of particular interest will be the grain size and morphology, including possible texture development. The occurrence of residual stresses in the as-deposited material will be studied using X-ray diffraction. Finally, mechanical properties of 3D printed steels will be studied, especially fatigue (LCF or FCGR) and fracture toughness (JIc), which have hardly been characterized, even at major global laboratories. It is hoped that the knowledge gained through this project will facilitate the eventual setting-up of a state-of-the-art AM laboratory at CSIR-NML, a proposal for which has already been submitted to the Steel Development Fund.

3NML/IPSG/2017/2018/16875(OLP 113605)2017-04-012018-03-31RajatR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Processing of Alloy Powders through Rapid solidification Routes for their suitability in Additive Manufacturing

Abstract: In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on advanced materials processing through additive manufacturing. This help in developing critical component of complex design with near net shape casting. In most of the cases, the standard steel powders (like 304 SS, 316SS) are used for designing the components. Attempts are being made to develop powder of newer alloy composition and utilize those for making components through additive manufacturing. Earlier CSIR-NML developed many high glass forming ability (GFA) alloys with improved properties. However, due to high cooling rate (~ 103 to 106 K/s, these alloys are restricted to thin ribbon or rods of smaller diameter or very small components (~ mm in size). In contrast, the processing technique like Additive Manufacturing using alloy powders with high GFA can help in developing critical components of bigger size and shape. The present project will aim to prepare powders of bulk metallic glass composition with the existing facility at CSIR-NML and feasibility of making a simple component out of those powders through additive manufacturing with the facility available at ARCI, Hyderabad or somewhere else. If it is possible to make a component out of the powder of bulk metallic glass composition it will be interesting to see whether the component is retaining the GFA during selective laser melting and thereby the mechanical and functional properties of bulk metallic glass alloy.

4NML/IPSG/2017/2018/22851(OLP 168749)2017-04-012018-03-31Ashok KR&DExpress Track(3 Months)Extractive MetallurgyProcess Modeling

Title: Control and analysis of inclusions in semi finished electrical steel - module 3

Abstract: Residual non-metallic inclusions present in liquid steel are one of the causes of process interruptions during transfer of liquid steel, solidification, post processing of solidified steel. Presence of residual non-metallic inclusions also ultimately affects the end properties of the steel. Specific to electrical steel, presence of non-metallic inclusions mostly annoys its performance during magnetization and demagnetization process via, creating barkhaunsen noise. The control of amount, size, morphology and chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions is highly essential to produce extra clean electrical steel. Therefore, one of the major objectives of this module is to perform special refining treatment to control the non-metallic inclusion during liquid steel processing and followed by critical analyses to assess the cleanliness of steel

5NML/IPSG/2017/2018/28776(OLP 113606)2017-06-012018-05-31Dr. Mainak GhoshR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Structure-Property Co-relation of Fe-Mn-Co-Cr Quaternary HE Alloy.

Abstract: High Entropy Alloys (HEAs) are one of the most promising new generation materials for their probable efficacious use in cryogenic application. Based on crystal structure three types of HEA have been reported in literatures; VEC ≥8 forms FCC, VEC 6.9 promotes BCC and VEC in between them results in combination of both. Among all these, FCC structure draws special attention owing to its versatile deformation behavior at different operating temperatures. Deformation behavior of FCC system is principally governed by stacking fault energy (SFE). SFE on the other hand is dependent on composition of the system and environmental temperature. In present endeavor from the well reported Fe-Mn-Co-Cr-Ni alloy system, the last element will be dropped. Dropping of Ni exhibited encouraging results at ambient temperature in couple of literatures; however, the response of same quaternary HEA toward cryo-temperature is still unknown. 304LN SS is presently a recommended alloy for its use in sub-zero temperature. This austenitic stainless steel will be considered as a yard stick for evaluation of mechanical properties of new alloy at sub-zero temperature. Aim of the present investigation thus becomes two folds, change in alloy composition to alter the SFE of the system so that i) mechanical properties of the system can be altered to make a comparison with 304LN SS and ii) explore the deformation mechanism at that sub-ambient temperature.

6NML/IPSG/2017/2018/28792(OLP 146528)2017-09-012018-08-31A K PramanickThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringBeneficiation

Title: High Entropy Zr-Ca-Si-Ti-Fe based Alloy for Biomaterial Application

Abstract: High Entropy Alloy (HEA) is relatively a new class material and have gained lots of interest to the researcher community in the recent years. They are characterized by unconventional compositions having multiple numbers of major alloying elements. HEA alloy contains at least five alloying elements with the concentration in a range of 5-35 at. % and minor elements <5 at.%. HEA multi-component alloys are often formed single solid-solution of single crystallographic phase; face centred cubic, body centred cubic or amorphous phase alloys. Their collective behaviour is mainly characterised atomic size difference (δ), mixing enthalpy (ΔHmix) and mixing entropy (ΔSmix). They share many common properties with that of bulk metallic glasses (BMG). Therefore, high-entropy bulk metallic glasses (HE-BMGs) provides an opportunity to study new type alloy system [1,2,3] Presently, orthopaedic alloys based on stainless steel, cobalt-chrome and titanium are widely used as implant materials. However, these alloys have a number of limitations such as stress shielding, corrosion etc [4]. Hence, development of new implant materials with better biocompatibility modulus of elasticity (Ƴ) closer to bone is in high demand. It is well known that zirconium, titanium [5] silicon [6], calcium and iron [7] in limit are biocompatible elements. Therefore, development of Zr-Ca-Ti-Si-Fe based HE-BMG with a combination of biocompatible metals and modulus closer to that of bone will be interesting in biomaterial applications. However, it should be noted that Phase diagrams for Zr-Ca, Ti-Ca are not available in ASM Metal Hand Books [8]. Therefore alloy development with Zr-Ca-Ti-Si-Fe composition is a challenging work.

7NML/IPSG/2017/2018/29524(OLP 146529)2017-10-012018-09-30NIMAI HALDARTechnology DevelopmentFull tenure(1 year)OthersCSIR-800

Title: Energy efficient Coke based brass melting furnace for the artisans of West Bengal and Odisha.

Abstract: In the previous projects OLP-0249, OLP-0299 CSIR-NML has transferred 2 number of energy efficient brass melting technology to (i) Yugantar Bharati, Ranchi, Jharkhand and (ii) West Bengal Khadi & Village Industries Board, MSME & T Dept. Govt. of W.B. Subsequently, CSIR-NML installed and commissioned three furnaces at three different places, namely (i) Namkum, Ranchi, (ii) Bikna, Bankura Dist. (iii) Dariapur, Burdwan Dist. CSIR-NML also conducted several training cum demonstration programme to the artisans and District Information centre officials. They have shown their interest for the know-how to the rest part of west Benagl. In this project, it is proposed to impart training to the artisans of Ghogata, Hoogly district, West Bengal. They need technological intervention in mould pre-heating and melting furnace. It is also proposed to study the feasibility of application of know-how in other districts of Odisha, mainly in Khurda district. Discussion is also going on with Odisha State Co-op. Handicraft Corporation Ltd., Bhubaneswar for technology transfer

8NML/IPSG/2017/2018/29923(OLP 167872)2017-06-012018-03-31Saswati ChakladarR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingPetrography & Process Mineralogy

Title: Influence of Micronization on Mineral Content and Chemical Structure of Indian Coal

Abstract: Abstract: Coal particle size and mineral matter have significant effects on coal combustion. Micronization of coal produces particle size in the range of ≤20 microns which thereby increases the surface area-to-volume ratio enormously. Micronization of coal is proven to be advantageous for improvement of combustion; however, very little information is available for Indian coals in similar perspective. Mechanical comminution to such fine particle size is also believed to effect the chemical structural integrity of coal, which is largely unexplored. Hence, the proposed study on micronization of Indian coals will primarily consist of three elements; 1) Comminution; 2) Demineralization; and 3) Chemical Characterization. To initiate, two distinct coal samples will be characterised through petrographic analysis and SEM-EDS studies. They will be further taken forward for fine milling and detailed organic characterization. Experimentally, density based separation at 0.5 mm size fraction will be adopted initially, the results from which will further dictate the course of project. This novel technique of micronization with its high usefulness in improving boiler efficiency, through ash minimization, would be extremely beneficial to try from Indian industrial perspective. This untried proposed study is believed to provide a detailed correlation of structural and chemical changes micronization would induce in Indian coals, futuristically aiming at improvement of combustion properties. ________________________________________

9NML/IPSG/2017/2018/34617(OLP 113607)2017-04-012018-03-31Minati Kumari SahuR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationNon-destructive Evaluation

Title: Creep damage assessment in power plant materials using Non linear Ultrasonic Technique

Abstract: Steel pipes are the important structural components of any power plant. Operating under conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high stress, these steels have potential failure locations and limiting life for the entire plant. In addition, once a failure occurs due to creep at high temperature, the analysis team is often confronted with the question: How long will similar components last or when the next inspection be performed? To address these questions, nondestructive evaluation techniques to detect creep damage are needed. The assessment of creep damage in structures (steels) employed in the most of the industries is usually carried out by means of replica metallographic, but the several shortcomings of this method have prompted a search for alternative or complementary non-destructive techniques. Different non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as acoustic emission, infrared thermography, eddy current and linear ultrasonic measurements have been used for the measurement of different types of damage in metals In recent years, non-linear ultrasound has emerged as one of the most reliable technique for non-destructive evaluation of material property degradation, which relies on measuring the higher order harmonics generated by a damage gradient. Recent studies reveals that non-linear ultrasonic measurements are sensitive to subtle damage in a material and can be used to observe damage at an early stage and can be correlated with certain micro-structural changes leading to micro-void nucleation and growth. A greater sensitivity to damage is accessed by monitoring the material by non-linear ultrasonic technique. The objective of this research is to develop a robust experimental procedure to reliably measure the acoustic non linearity parameter using longitudinal waves in both through transmission and pulse echo modes and their correlation with micro structural and mechanical properties in power plant materials to study different stages of creep damage in P92 steel and Inconnel 600 (Inconnel 600 for creep void and NLU parameter correlation)

10NML/IPSG/2017/2018/41052(OLP 168750)2017-04-012018-03-31SUMANTA BAGUIR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMechanical Behaviour of Materials

Title: Creep and creep crack growth behavior of a Nickel base alloy [Module-III]

Abstract: Alloy 617 (Ni-22Cr-12Co-9Mo) is primarily solid-solution strengthened nickel base superalloy. It is one of most promising materials for an advanced ultra-super critical (A-USC) fossil fuel fired boiler for its superior mechanical properties, especially creep resistance. Alloy 617 is planned to use around 700-750°C and >24 MPa pressure in internal piping of different section of A-USC boiler. Hence, studies on deformation behavior of Alloy 617 due to creep between 650-800°C is very much essential. Intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) takes part a critical role in boiler to transfer heat from primary reactor to the relatively cold fluid in secondary reactor. Temperature difference/gradient in primary and secondary legs of IHX often responsible for crack initiation source at critical location and propagate to cause failure diminishing the expected creep rupture life of Alloy 617. Similar situation may occur where failure originates at a stress concentration or at pre-existing defects in the component. Below sub-creep temperature regime, conventional fracture mechanics approach for predicting crack growth behavior under elastic or elastic-plastic condition is well established. Whereas, in creep temperature regime, crack tip parameter must take into account time dependent creep deformation. Hence, creep crack growth behavior of Alloy 617 is equally important to understand failure due to creep resulting from a localized damage. Alloy 617 comprises equiaxed grain of gamma phase, annealing twins, uniformly distributed primary carbides (MC, M2C-type) within the grain and secondary carbides (M23C6-type) within the grain and along the grain boundaries. However, proportion of theses phases changes with thermal exposure. Damage accumulated due to creep in bulk material and localized region (due to presence of a crack) needs quantification for better understanding of high temperature deformation behavior of Alloy 617. Though solid solution strengthening is dominant in Alloy 617, other strengthening mechanism are also important and needs to be identified. The prime objective of this research work in Module III is to finish all remaining creep tests relevant to identify bulk creep deformation mechanism of Alloy 617 at various stress ranges between 650-800°C. Furthermore, quantification of damage in terms of dislocation density measurement, creep void measurement etc. and quantification of phases will be determined in this module. In later modules, investigation will be carried out to determine the effect of pre-existing crack on creep/design life.

11NML/IPSG/2017/2018/43114(OLP 168751)2017-04-012018-03-31charu singhR&DFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringCorrosion

Title: Studies on corrosion behavior of electrodeposited Ni using ionic liquid on AZ91 and AZ31 Mg alloys.

Abstract: Magnesium is very reactive and corrodes in preference to deposition in the bath which makes it difficult to plate. This is further complicated by the secondary phases present as they cause the galvanic corrosion at very high rate. The proposal aims at to improve the surface suitable for deposition and to enhance the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy by nickel electrodeposition using ionic liquid; To compare this with the other coatings (such as aqueous plating and solgel), sol-gel coatings will also be attempted. The research will also be carried to develop suitable pretreatment for the magnesium surface so that the dissolution can be controlled during ionic liquid electrodeposition as well as sol-gel coating. The suitability of the process shall be established by nickel deposition on pre-treated magnesium surface and their corrosion behaviour.

12NML/IPSG/2017/2018/4546(OLP 113608)2017-04-012018-03-31KRISHNA KUMARR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyProcess Modeling

Title: Heat transfer modelling of condensation behavior of metal (Mg) vapors during distillation for quantitative analysis of condenser design (module I)

Abstract: 1. Distillation is a separation process which is used to separate the components of a system based on their boiling points and vapor pressures at specific thermodynamic conditions. In metallurgy, distillation may be used as a strong tool to separate, selectively a component from the system by maintaining suitable conditions, at much higher scale than at what it is. A method of condensing magnesium vapor which comprises passing the vapor successively into two or more condensation zones maintained at condensation temperatures respectively above and below the melting temperature of magnesium, whereby the major portion of the vapor is condensed in the first zone directly to a liquid and the remaining vapor is condensed in the second zone as a solid, and combining the condensate from the second zone with that formed in the first zone, where by substantially all the magnesium condensed is recovered in the liquid state. Heat, mass and momentum transport plays a crucial role during condensation phenomena. In this study an integrated condensation heat transfer model for magnesium vapour will be developed based on drop wise and film wise condensation mechanism, which will be primarily validated with literature data and experimental findings. The model is expected to provide guidelines to facilitate computational design analysis of a condenser unit based on simulation study. The experimental set up for the model validation study and understanding of the mechanism of heat transfer will also be designed.

13NML/IPSG/2017/2018/48041(OLP 168752)2017-04-012018-03-31Madan MR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyProcess Modeling

Title: Modelling of the Inclusion removal by synthetic Slag – A Multi-phase CFD coupled with DEM approach

Abstract: The challenges required by the applications to improve the mechanical and other properties led to improve the cleanliness of the steel. This increasing demand in recent years for high quality steels has considerably affected the steelmaking process practices itself. The non-metallic inclusion plays an important role in the clean steel technology where it has to be minimized or be modified to remove its harmful nature by controlling their morphology, composition and size distribution. The inclusions in the steels are removed by using the synthetic slag. The mechanism of the inclusion removal from the metal to the slag phase is to be assessed in detail to enhance its usability in the treatment of the steel in Ladle. The kinetics of the inclusion removal and the flow behavior in the Ladle plays an important part in increasing the inclusion removal from the steel. A combined approach of the thermodynamics, kinetics and CFD will articulate the maximum inclusion removal with minimum of given time period. In this study, a detailed thermodynamics and kinetics is to be carried out to find best suited synthetic slag for the Al killed steels.

14NML/IPSG/2017/2018/5190(OLP 168753)2017-04-012018-03-31ASISH KUMAR DATTAR&DExpress Track(3 Months)Materials EvaluationMechanical Behaviour of Materials

Title: Optimization of Hysteretic Dissipation Energy of Moment Resistant Frame for High Rise Steel Structures against Earthquake Excitations for Different Grades of High Tensile Steels: Module III

Abstract: Seismic resistant steel moment resistant frame combine high stiffness in the elastic range with good ductility and energy dissipation capacity in the inelastic range. Under severe cyclic loading, the inelastic deformation is restricted and localized primarily in beam members, which are designed and detailed to sustain large inelastic deformations without significant loss of strength. The beams act as ductile members, dissipating energy through stable hysteretic behavior, while limiting the forces transmitted to the other components in the structure. Furthermore, it is difficult to assess whether the structure can survive another earthquake, since no measure of the cumulative inelastic action that has taken place during an earthquake is usually possible. The present study represents a continued effort towards evaluation of plastic deformation capacities of steel member of high rise structure subjected to cyclic loads from four hypothetical time history frequencies. In ‘Module I & II’ extensive work had been carried out in respect of design philosophy, structural concepts and dynamic responses of high rise steel structures subjected to earthquake forces. A sound methodology had been developed for modeling responses of steel frame structure subjected to earthquake forces for different height to plan by finite element approach. Both CSIR-SERC & BARC, Trombay had expressed their interest for joint venture for a research program of combined analytical and large-scale experimental studies is the concern of this proposal.

15NML/IPSG/2017/2018/51998(OLP 168754)2017-04-012018-03-31abhishek KumarR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Enhancement of dewatering efficiency of mineral slurry using surface active reagents.

Abstract: Solid liquid separation is an integral part of any mineral processing industry. Ore beneficiation necessarily requires removal of large amounts of water before further processing of concentrated ores. Most of the low grade ores require fine grinding for their liberation of valuable mineral from the gangue during processing. As a result, the mineral grain size decreases. The tendency for water to be trapped on porous surfaces and between particles increases as the size of particles decreases. Water also has a greater difficulty in passing through the interstitial voids, when the particle diameter decreases. Dewatering of fines upto the desired level required for the subsequent operations is difficult to achieve using conventional dewatering techniques. Typical examples of dewatering problem faced by mineral industry includes: - High moisture content of fine iron ore concentrate poses serious problem in pelletization. - Difficulty in Coke making due to the high moisture content of fine clean coal. So this project aims at enhancing the water removal capability during filtration by using certain surface modifier reagents which can modify either particle size or surface chemistry or both. Presently its output will be in terms of basic research but if it succeeds it is expected to be beneficial to the process industry.

16NML/IPSG/2017/2018/53487(OLP 113609)2017-06-012018-06-01Ganesh ChalavadiR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Modelling and Simulation of non- conventional superimposed multi-force mineral separator (Thematic Research)

Abstract: Abstract for Thematic research In the present scenario, the most significant change in the state of the raw mineral base is the lowering of the metals content in ores, increase in the ash content of raw coal and the introduction of low grade ores which are extremely difficult to beneficiate. This situation considerably reduces the efficiency of beneficiation and demands improvement and modification of existing equipment and ore beneficiation methods. All most all the existing beneficiation system are single separating force (gravity or magnetic or electric or surface forces etc) dependent for beneficiation, but with the existing depletion of valuables in ore there is a need for developing a novel superimpose multi-force separators which can beneficiate low grade ores efficiently. Superimpose multi-force separators use the combination of 2 or more forces for beneficiating the ores. Using modelling and simulations for developing multi-force mineral separators will help to investigate the effect of changes without producing a physical prototype there by not wasting money and time. And also modelling and simulation gives an ease to edit the design ideas, which makes it easier and cheaper to modify the design multiple times until positive output is obtained. The main objective of this work is to model and simulate the non-conventional superimposed multi-force mineral separator and the results obtained are implemented in reality there by making beneficiation processes efficient for given tough mineral to beneficiate . Initial work is planned to carry out with the superimposing of gravity and magnetic forces for coarser size range (1mm to 0.1mm),superimposing gravity and electric forces for finer size range (-0.1mm) in a separator. By using the law of conservation of momentum mathematical models are framed. Validation of modelling and simulation results is very necessary step. The simulated model shall be fabricated on bench scale and experimentation will carried out for validation.

17NML/IPSG/2017/2018/55644(OLP 146530)2017-10-032018-09-28Siuli DuttaR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationNon-destructive Evaluation

Title: Correlation of microstructure and mechanical properties of steel by Electromagnetic characterization (Module 1) : Studies on recovery and recrystallization behavior of 80% cold rolled low carbon steel by Magnetic Non-destructive Evaluation

Abstract: The low carbon interstitial free (IF) steel is widely used in automobile industries due to its excellent formability and resistance to thinning, which are processed through the sequences of hot rolling, cold rolling, and annealing. The monitoring of annealing treatment is required to control microstructural features and mechanical properties at final stage which are optimized using conventional microscopy and hardness measurement. In present investigation, the IF steel specimens of 5 mm thickness will be processed by 50 and 80% cold rolling reduction, and followed by annealing treatment with temperature ranges of 200-700C. The microstructural parameters will be evaluated through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EBSD, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and mechanical properties will be determined by hardness and tensile testing. Finally, the microstructure and mechanical properties will be correlated with micromagnetic parameters measured by an electromagnetic sensor (Magstar).

18NML/IPSG/2017/2018/58368(OLP 146531)2017-10-012018-09-30Mousumi DasScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationNon-destructive Evaluation

Title: Evaluation of residual stress and mechanical properties of in-service components using ball indentation technique with finite element modeling

Abstract: Conventional techniques for evaluation of mechanical properties of materials are well established. Yet, evaluation of the same either through in-situ or by using small amount of test materials, are in great demand for estimation of remaining lives of service exposed components. Among the various small specimen techniques ball indentation technique (BIT) is proven technique to evaluate mechanical properties of materials. BIT was developed initially to meet the urgent need of evaluating mechanical properties of nuclear irradiated materials. Later, it was found that this method is equally useful in assessing the health of a service exposed component. It is well known that residual stresses can strongly affect the mechanical performance (such as static and fatigue strengths, fracture toughness, corrosion-/wear resistance) and thus the reliability and lifetime of components. For instance, if a structural component is under an externally applied tensile stress, compressive residual stresses enhance the resistance to crack propagation, whereas tensile residual stresses deteriorate the resistance. Residual stress measurement technique is based on the key concepts that the deviatoric stress part of residual stress affects the change in indentation load-depth curve, and then by analyzing difference between residual stress-induced indentation curve and residual stress-free curve, quantitative residual stress of target region can be evaluated. Finite element method (FEM) has been widely used for simulation of BI tests on material in order to analyze its deformation response, influence of indenter geometry, friction and material elastic and plastic properties. FE simulation on BI technique can be used to study the stress states beneath the indenter. Therefore, the proposed work is aimed to introduce residual stress module into existing PABI system to make this system a complete tool for life assessment of in-use component. And validate PABI system with finite element simulation & conventional mechanical test.

19NML/IPSG/2017/2018/58378(OLP 168755)2017-04-012018-03-31Aarti KumariR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Separation studies of rare earth metals from the leach liquor of scrap magnet of wind turbines

Abstract: NdFeB magnet is widely used in modern technological equipment especially for clean energy development. The scrap NdFeB magnet containing ~30% of rare earth metals can be utilized as secondary resources of rare earths. Literature survey shows that hydrometallurgical recycling of rare earths elements from scrap NdFeB magnets consumes high concentration of acid and iron is rarely recovered in usable form. Aiming at selective recovery of rare earth elements from scrap NdFeB magnet with minimum consumption of acid, scrap wind turbine magnets were obtained from Regen Powertech Pvt. Limited, a wind energy company of India. In Module I, roasting followed by leaching with 0.5M HCl at 95°C and 100 g/L pulp density, rare earth elements were selectively and quantitatively recovered leaving iron in the leach residue as hematite. The leach solution obtained under optimized condition contained 17 g/L Nd, 3.9 g/L Pr, 0.24 g/L Dy and 0.7 g/L B. Advanced application requires high purity individual rare earth oxides. Therefore, in Module II rare earth elements present in the above leach solution will be separated by solvent extraction/ membrane separation/ precipitation. Various novel and existing commercial/ solvent extractant reagents such as Cyanex 572, Cyphos IL 104, D2EHPA etc. will be tested for their effective separation. Separation condition will be optimized by varying various parameters such as pH, extractant concentration, temperature etc. High pure individual rare earths oxides from the purified solution will be prepared by precipitation. Finally complete process flowsheet will be proposed for the recovery of high pure individual rare earth oxide from the scrap wind turbine magnet.

20NML/IPSG/2017/2018/60653(OLP 168756)2017-04-012018-03-31Murugesan A PR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringMetal Forming

Title: Thermo -mechanical processing parameters on microstructures and hot deformation behaviour of molybdenum added low carbon micro alloyed steel (Module 3)

Abstract: Abstract Line pipe steels, based on API standard, up to strength level of X70 grade are commercially made and being extensively used as structural material in oil and petroleum industries due to their excellent mechanical properties, like tensile strength, toughness and weldability. Although efforts have been made at industrial as well as laboratory level to develop materials beyond the strength level of X70, there are still no defined rule for composition design and suitable thermo-mechanical controlled processing (TMCP) schedule. The role of addition of Molybdenum (Mo) in low carbon micro-alloyed steel, under influence of deformation schedule around Tnr (Non recrysllaization temperature) finish rolling temperatures on development of beneficial microstructures (bainite, acicular ferrite), flow properties and recrystallization behavior of low carbon micro-alloyed steel, has been studied in last modules. First deformation was carried out at well above austenisation and Tnr temperature i.e 1070°C, while finish deformation temperatures varied from 950°C to 800°C. Molybdenum added steel showed the reduction of grain size i.e finer grain sizes, lower than 5µm, when deformation temperature reduced down to 800°C. However, applying proper finish rolling strategy with right cooling rate is essential to generate desired microstructural product. It is understood from previous work that highest deformation below Tnr and the deformation temperature just above the Ar3 temperature yields finer microstructure. Cooling rate for all deformation schedule was kept constant, 20c/s. Further, cooling rate after final deformation decides predominantly type of different microstructure product (polygonal ferrite. Quasi-gonal ferrite, lower baintie, Martensite-Austenite (M-A product). Therefore, finish deformation temperature below Tnr and cooling rate in addition to the deformation schedule must be carefully chosen to get such a desired final microstructure. The important objective of present module is to study the effect of cooling rate and quantitative analysis of different microstructures of low carbon micro alloyed steels of Gleeble processed samples by SEM-EBSD and TEM techniques extensively.

21NML/IPSG/2017/2018/63807(OLP 146532)2017-08-112018-07-13Tome SylvainScholastic ResearchFull Tenure (1 year)Resource, Energy and EnvironementMetallurgical/ Mineral waste Utilization


Abstract: In this project we are going to use municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) ash and waste glass powder (WGP) of geopolymer cement. MSWI ash is an aluminosilicate material with low reactivity. To alter its reactivity, it will be used synergistically with WGP, which is also as MSW. The geopolymer binder will be synthesising, using NaOH and Na2SiO3 combinations. The reaction kinetics will be studied using isothermal conduction calorimetric data. The geopolymer products will be characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDS and TEM. The mechanical properties of the geopolymers will be evaluated by compressive and flexural strength development. Finally the durability of this cement will be studied using wet dry cycle and sulfuric acid resistant tests.

22NML/IPSG/2017/2018/65053(OLP 146533)2017-10-032018-09-30Sushmita DeyScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Studies on magnetocaloric behavior of NiMnGa based crystalline and Fe/Co Glassy Systems (Module 1: Preparation of NiMnGa-X(X=Cu) alloy by melting casting /meltspinning and characterization)

Abstract: In recent years, research on magnetic refrigeration has gained prominence due to environmental issues pertaining to conventional gas-based refrigeration technologies. Magnetic field induced refrigeration technology is based on the phenonmena of “Magnetocaloric Effect (MCE)”, wherein a change in temperature of a material occurs due to adiabatic application or removal of an external magnetic field. Magnetocaloric effect is characterized by magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) and working temperature span (ΔT) of the magnetic alloy. MCE is large in the vicinity of the phase transformation or Curie temperature (TC), where the magnetic spins undergo an order - disorder phase transition. The present proposal aims at studying the magnetocaloric behaviour in Ni-Mn-Ga-X based crystalline materials with first order transformation . The materials will be prepared by arc melting and melt spinning. The phase transformation will be studied using optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. TEM will be done for selected samples. Magnetic entropy change will be evaluated from the isothermal magnetization curves using Vibrating sample magnetometer (Quantum Design: Versa lab). Our main focus will be to develop a magnetic alloy with superior magnetocaloric properties.

23NML/IPSG/2017/2018/65790(OLP 168757)2017-04-012018-03-31CHANDRANI SARKARR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Synthesis of three dimensional hemiporous calcium phosphate blocks as synthetic bone graft

Abstract: The main aim of the proposed research work is to systematically characterize the synthesized bio compatible hemi-porous blocks by using Universal Mechanical testing machine, XRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR, TG/DTA.

24NML/IPSG/2017/2018/6891(OLP 146534)2017-10-012018-09-30BIRAJ KUMAR SAHOOR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Development of Medium Mn, high Al low density high strength steel- MODULE 2

Abstract: There is a growing demand form the automotive sector for high strength light weight steel. High Mn(25-30%) and high Al(12-14%) TWIP or SIMPLEX steels having high strength and formability with lower density have been developed but owing to high Mn content, it adds hugely to the cost. It also poses manufacturing problems at industrial scale and thus not produced commercially in large scale. The density of automotive grade steel is around 7.8g/cc but with every 1% addition of Al there is a decrease in density of 1.3%. So, here lies a scope to develop a high strength steel with high Al in range of 8-12% but keeping the Mn content limited in the range of 7-12 %. With such steel, a density of 6.8-7.0 g/cc (i.e. ~10% reduction in density) can be achieved. The proposal aims to develop such steel by suitable alloy design and critically controlling the subsequent thermo-mechanical processing. The microstructure of the developed steel would be combination of ferrite, austenite with fine scale precipitation of K-carbide(FeMn)3AlC and/or B2 ordered phases(FeMnAl). The inter-critical annealing schedule after cold rolling plays a significant role for the development of the above microstructure. The precipitation of brittle intermetallics would be controlled to obtain very fine nano scale precipitation such that it would add to the strength, rather deteriorating the properties. The proposal in the module-2, aims to investigate and understand the the precipitation behavior of the intermetallics with different heat treatment schedule, its morphology, size and coherency in the ferrite-austenite matrix.

25NML/IPSG/2017/2018/69965(OLP 167873)2017-06-012018-03-31Gopi Kishor MandalR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringSolidification & Casting

Title: Simulation of thin strip casting

Abstract: To compensate the environmental degradation and energy losses, steel plants will need to use new efficient technologies capable of supplying steel strip products of high quality at low cost. Direct strip casting technology has the potential of producing steel strips at a greatly reduced cost. However, there is a high emphasis on improvement in surface quality, geometry and properties of the cast strip. The larger aim is to develop a much wider range of advanced steels from this technology. For this technology, the conditions are drastically different to conventional processing that the solidification and subsequent microstructural evolution is yet not understood. High casting speed and rapid solidification of strips demand an accurate control of process parameters. The main focus of present study is to generate a fundamental knowledge required to develop steels with higher levels of both strength and formability. The high rate of heat extraction from the melt through the rolls results in faster solidification and produces as-cast steel microstructures radically different to those produced by conventional routes. Therefore, in the present investigation, molten steel with desired composition will be cast as thin strips (3-5 mm) in water cooled copper mould in order to obtain coarse grained solidification structure akin to strip cast sheets. The post-solidification microstructure controls the mechanical properties of the final product. Additionally, the challenge for strip casting is the single pass high deformation to achieve the properties. Therefore, the current investigation also aims to establish hot working schedule based on thin strip casting process parameters that will link the recrystallised austenite to the as-cast austenite grain size and deformation conditions.

26NML/IPSG/2017/2018/72138(OLP 146535)2017-10-012018-09-30Dr. Sabita GhoshR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMicrostructural Characterisation

Title: Study of structure-property correlation to comprehend cementite dissolution during wire drawing process

Abstract: Improvement of mechanical properties through severe plastic deformed steels have great technological importance as high-strength materials. Amongst them, heavily cold drawn pearlitic steel wires exhibit very high tensile strength. These wires are used to bear mechanical loads or for electricity and telecommunication signals, tire cord, springs, wire rope, suspension bridge cable etc. They are typically produced by drawing wire of approximately the eutectoid composition to an intermediate diameter to produce a fine perlitic microstructure followed by cold drawing to introduce high strain. Usually wire drawings require more than one draw, through successively smaller dies to reach the desired size. The process of wire drawing changes material’s properties due to introduction of enormous strain during cold drawing. Often intermediate anneals are required to counter the effects of cold working and to forward further drawing. Strength increases as a function of strains. During plastic deformation of pearlitic steel, partial dissolution of cementite has been reported, which affects the mechanical properties of the drawn steel wires, although cementite is only one-eighth of the total volume of pearlite. Therefore the aim of the present proposal is to investigate the deformed microstructure of pearlite and to study the structure-property correlation to establish the micro-mechanism of cementite dissolution

27NML/IPSG/2017/2018/74328(OLP 168758)2017-04-012018-03-31Archana KumariR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: STUDIES FOR THE RECOVERY OF LANTHANIDE GROUP METALS FROM PRIMARY AND SECONDARY RESOURCES [Module-II: Leaching studies of Rare Earth Metals from primary (monazite) and secondary (E-waste) resources]

Abstract: In continuation of the previous work (OLP-0288, Module-I) under the EMR-CSIR project for Senior Research Fellowship entitled "STUDIES FOR THE RECOVERY OF LANTHANIDE GROUP METALS FROM PRIMARY AND SECONDARY RESOURCES", which was focused on the pre-treatment studies of the primary ore monazite/ secondaries containing rare earth metals (REMs) and their characterization, the Module-II is focused on the leaching studies of Rare Earth Metals (REMs) from primary (monazite) and secondary (E-waste) resources. Present work is focused on the development of extraction processes for the recovery of REMs from pre-treated monazite and secondary resources (E-waste). After pre-treatment, leaching studies will be carried out to select suitable lixiviant using various leachant such as acids, alkali, complex salts, etc. in atmospheric as well as high pressure temperature conditions. After selecting the suitable leachant and process, further studies will be carried out by varying different process parameters viz. temperature, acid concentration, time, pulp density, particle size, etc. to get suitable condition for effective leaching of REMs. The obtained leach liquor will contain mixed REMs. For getting pure solutions of REMs from obtained leach liquor, further Solvent Extraction (SX)/ Ion-Exchange (IX)/ Cementation/ Precipitation experiments will be carried out in Module-III. From the pure solution of metals, salts/ pure metals can be obtained either by evaporation/ crystallization.

28NML/IPSG/2017/2018/77759(OLP 146536)2017-10-032018-09-28Soni Scholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringSurface Modification

Title: Development of hard and optically transparent nanocomposite coatings for wear and optoelectronic applications. (Module I): Effect of deposition conditions on mechanical and optical behaviour of Al-S-N thin films.

Abstract: Hardness and optical transparency are the basic requirements of an Optical Protective Coating used in architectural windows, solar water heating devices, transparent windows for furnaces etc. AlN is a hard material and transparent in the visible range of light making it suitable for such applications. Si addition in AlN results in further enhancement of its hardness and also provides additional oxidation resistance due to expected Al-Si-N nanocomposite microstructure. Moreover due to field emission and wide band gap of AlN, these coatings can also be employed in Field Emission Devices and Light Emitting Diodes. This work aims to develop Al-Si-N nanocomposite coating with sound mechanical as well as optical properties and understanding the underlying mechanisms behind there fabrication by investigating there structural properties through XRD, SEM, TEM etc. and correlating it with the film mechanical and optical properties as the behavior of coating is dependent on its microstructure which ultimately depends on its growth conditions during deposition. Therefore by tailoring the microstructure we can tune the Al-Si-N thin film properties as per the application requirement.

29NML/IPSG/2017/2018/78053(OLP 146537)2017-10-012018-09-30Premkumar MurugaiyanScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Development of High Induction amorphous based soft magnetic alloys-Module II

Abstract: Amorphous based Electrical steels are new class of soft magnetic materials with high electrical resistivity, low coercivity, low core loss and finds extensive applications as core material (transformers), stators motors, generators), Magneto static shielding, choke coils, actuators etc. The drawback of amorphous based material is its low magnetic induction (Bs) due to alloying additions for amorphous structure stabilization. The present investigation is aimed at alloy development, containing ferromagnetic Fe as base element in the range 80-85 atomic%. The present study involves in series of alloy modifications targeting optimal ratio of metalloid, grain growth inhibitor, nucleating elements and achieving magnetic induction greater than 1.5Tesla and good DC soft magnetic properties. Based on the theoretical results, Phosphorous and Boron will be the suitable metalloid for the high Fe system. Alloy optimization studies will be carried out to achieve optimal combination of high Ms, low Hc and 𝜆. The Alloy development also envisages partial crystallization and investigate the nanocrystalline effect on magnetization process. The obtained structural and soft magnetic results will be formulated in Random Anisotropy Model (RAM) to understand the compliance of developed alloys with existing model.

30NML/IPSG/2017/2018/7819(OLP 146538)2017-09-302018-10-31Minal ShahThematic ResearchExpress Track(3 Months)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Study on Evolution of low temperature nanobainitic steel-Module 2

Abstract: With the increasing demand on energy saving, it is of necessity to develop high performance low cost steels having extraordinary high strength along with good toughness. The possibility of obtaining steels with nano size laths (20-50nm) of bainite by isothermal transformation treatment at low temperature is set forth. In this respect detail work has to be done to accelerate the kinetic of bainitic transformation by processing parameters and economical alloying elements. Role of Cu has to be studied on kinetics and Bs temperature on nanobainitic transformation. Continuous cooled bainite has to studied to accelerate the kinetics. Modeling and Simulation of Isothermal and Continuous cooled bainite through Matlab has to be done.

31NML/IPSG/2017/2018/8057(OLP 168759)2017-04-012018-03-31Ammasi AR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyAgglomeration

Title: Effect of oxygen partial pressure on induration behaviors of carbon added iron oxide pellets and burning behaviour of carbon (different origin) in pellets (Module II)

Abstract: In case of magnetite pellets, change in roasting atmosphere in induration furnace greatly improve the recrystallization and diffusion bond in magnetite pellets because of spontaneous conversion of cubic magnetite to hexagonal hematite lattice , which resulted in increase in cold compressive strength, reducibility index of the pellets and other properties of pellets as well. However, hematite pellet does not get influence with change in oxygen atmosphere due to the highest stable form of iron oxide at standard state. The change in oxygen atmosphere during induration hematite pellet does not affect the induration behaviour of hematite pellets. To improve the quality of hematite pellets and to decrease the energy consumption, certain amount of different carbonaceous materials ((coke, jhama coal and BF flue dust), will be admixed with hematite pellets feed. During induration of carbon added hematite pellets oxidation of carbon produces carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. The ratio of CO and CO2 is depends on activity of carbon, partial pressure of gases particularly oxygen partial pressure, temperature, etc. The generated CO may reduce the iron oxide in hematite in some extent. The reduced iron oxide may deteriorate the pellet quality if recrystallization and re oxidation of reduced iron oxide are not accomplished. The change in oxygen partial pressure may affect the burning behaviour of carbon in pellets and induration mechanism of carbon added hematite pellets may be altered. Therefore, the gas mixture argon and oxygen will be injected into induration furnace strand at appropriate time and temperature to study the burning behaviour of carbon and induration behaviour of hematite pellets. The injection of oxygen in appropriate time and temperature may simulate the magnetite pellets, which mean recrystallization and diffusion bond can be obtained in hematite pellets as well. In present study, different carbonaceous materials such as coke, jhama coal and BF Flue dust will be used in hematite ore pellets as an additive to study the burning characteristics of carbon (different sources) includes oxidation of carbon, start and finish temperature of carbon consumption, quantification of CO and CO2 with partial pressure of oxygen, etc. Induration behaviour of hematite pellet in presence of different source of carbon and optimization and their burning characteristics in induration strand will be studied to enhance the maximum utilization of carbon for in-situ heat generation and minimizing the reduction of iron oxide reduction in pellet by controlling burning behaviour of carbon in pellet. An effect of pO2 on induration behaviour of Fe2O3 of or carbon added iron oxide pellet and burning characteristic/behaviour of carbonaceous materials will be studied to avail the maximum amount of in-situ heat from the carbon, which will help in reducing external energy consumption.

32NML/IPSG/2017/2018/9790(OLP 146539)2017-09-012018-08-31NIMAI HALDARR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringMaterials Joining

Title: Friction stir welding of dissimilar material Cu-Al using cryo-treated tool

Abstract: FSW is now a very popular solid state welding process for joining two similar or dissimilar metals (ferrous & nonferrous). But still researchers are facing a lot of challenges in joining two dissimilar materials for their quite different characteristics, ingredients, melting temperature etc. So core area of my project is concerned with the FSW of two nonferrous metals like Al and Cu. Very few researches have been carried out regarding this type of dissimilar welding. This welding will be characterized by Design approach statistical design of experiment technique for maximizing tensile and hardness test, surface roughness, Mechanical characterization etc.

33NML/IPSG/2017/2018/9831(OLP 105360)2017-04-012018-03-31Dr S K MAITYR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyElectrometallurgy

Title: High Temperature Electrolysis for Extraction of Rare Earth Metals

Abstract: The project is submitted under Thematic project proposal in sub area no. 2, REE & PGM category . Rare earth metal comprising of fourteen elements has special significance because of the rich resources of rare earth minerals in India. The demand of elemental rare earth metal is steadily increasing and there is no commercial production in India to fulfill the indigenous demand for nuclear and magnetic applications. The reduction of rare earth chlorides to elemental rare earth metal is a widely adapted process. The high temperature electrolysis of rare earth chloride finds relevant importance because of low operating temperature, less hazardous and less energy intensive process. The main objective of this study is to develop an indigenous technology for the production of rare earth metals ingot from rare earth chlorides by high temperature electrolysis. Initially out of the fourteen rare earth metals, it is targeted to produce neodymium metal (mostly used rare earth metals for magnetic applications among all rare earth metal) by high temperature electrolysis. Based on earlier expertise gained during the study, the future activities for extraction of other elemental rare earth metals will be carried out.