Ongoing Projects

S.No. Number Start Date End Date Project Leader Category Type Core Area Sub Area
1NML/IPSG/2019/2019/30115 ()2019-10-152020-10-15Manish Kumar NayakScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Development of a pseudo-capacitive nanocomposite electrode material for high energy supercapacitors.

Abstract: Due to the growing demand for portable power sources, researchers are attempting to develop energy storage devices that offer greater power and energy density as well as better cycle stability. In the same context, supercapacitors are part of the next generation energy storage devices, with excellent charge / discharge characteristics and long cycle stability. However, the main difficulty of a supercapacitor is its low energy density. Energy density of a supercapacitor depends on two factors i.e. capacitance value and operating potential window. Enhancements of both are required for achieving high energy density of supercapacitors. The materials which can perform continuous reversible Faradaic redox reaction cycle, like in batteries, exhibit better energy density than the Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) material. Thus, the most promising approach to achieving higher energy densities without compromising power density is the development of a heterostructured nanocomposite from pseudo-capacitive materials, able to accumulate energy through rapid redox reactions. To develop such a nanocomposite, we plan to use a new series of 2D materials called MXene (composed of carbides / nitrides / carbonitrides of transition metals) and metal oxides / sulfides. It is expected that metal oxides / sulfides nanostructures will grow uniformly on conductive MXene sheets to form 3-dimensional interconnected heterostructure using hydrothermal method. A review of the literature shows that the dynamic behavior of the Faradic reaction has been significantly improved and that its unique heterostructure provides more efficient active sites for rapid reversible redox reactions, thereby significantly increasing electrochemical storage capacity. It is therefore a promising candidate for future high energy supercapacitors.

2NML/IPSG/2019/2020/43105 ()2019-10-012020-09-30Arpita GhoshThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationNon-destructive Evaluation

Title: Predicting the probability of failure of power plant components using NDE parameters.

Abstract: Nondestructive assessment of damage that occurs in components during service plays a major role in condition monitoring and residual life estimation of in-service components/structures. Ultrasonic methods have been found to be effective for this purpose. However, most of these conventional methods using ultrasonic characteristics in the linear elastic region are only sensitive to gross defects but much less sensitive to micro-damage. Recently, nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU) has been established as an effective tool for the nondestructive evaluation of the performance of materials for various types of damage, including creep damage characterization. The NLU parameter β provides a measure of the extent of damage within the crept specimens under different test conditions. This information is not sufficient to predict the remaining useful life of any power plant component. The knowledge of remaining useful life and the probability of failure at any point of time in the life cycle of any component would be important information for the plant operators to prevent failure. The present investigation deals with obtaining a predictive model from NLU parameter β which would assist in predicting the remaining useful life of power plant components irrespective of temperature and stress conditions.

3NML/IPSG/2019/2020/45476 ()2019-10-012020-09-30Chandra Veer SinghScholastic ResearchExpress Track(3 Months)Materials EvaluationMechanical Behaviour of Materials

Title: Module 1: High Temperature Crack Growth of Cr-Mo Steels

Abstract: The growth of cracks strongly depends on the amount of the material in the vicinity of crack-tip coupled with the ductility of the material. Varied combinations of the two, give rise to distinct constraint conditions for a growing crack. The quantitative understanding of crack-growth under different constraint conditions is imperative to ensure the integrity of the components especially operating at higher temperatures. The experiments pertaining to study the effect of constraint wherein specimens of varying geometries and sizes would be explored. This work would provide insight into the relevant information required for the next generation of design codes and assessment procedures

4NML/IPSG/2019/2020/61889 (OLP 0372)2019-12-012020-05-31Murugesan A PTechnology DevelopmentFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Development of melting-casting facilities and optimization of melting –casting parameters for 3rd generation Al-Li alloys.

Abstract: Al-Li alloys are paramount considerations for designers to replace conventional Al alloys in aerospace industries. The present grade in Al-Li alloy is third generation where, couple of disadvantages of Generation-I and II have been overcome. This lead to make indigenous technology to make AL-Li alloy for aerospace industries. Development of AL-Li alloy for aerospace application requires a very challenging melting and casting methodology. The melting of Al-Li alloys are reported by using either resistance heating furnace under argon atmosphere with suitable flux cover or vacuum induction melting furnace. the objectives of the present proposal which including Development of resistance heating melting and casting facilities under inert atmosphere, Selection of crucible and mould materials for Al-Li alloys and Optimization of melting and casting parameters to obtain targeted compositions.

5NML/IPSG/2019/2020/63461 ()2019-10-012020-09-30Dr Krishnendu MukherjeeThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Phase field modelling on microstructure evolution of Mg-alloys during solidification and aging

Abstract: Proposed project aims to model the microstructure evolution of Mg-alloys during solidification and aging by phase field modelling. High strength Mg alloys are being developed at NML for biodegradable implant applications. It is known that the mechanical and degradation properties of the alloys are dependent on the microstructure. Therefore, modeling microstructure evolution and correlating it with the mechanical properties would in turn be useful for identifying the composition and processing methods to achieve the target properties. Microstructure modelling would be able to quantify the segregation of alloying elements during casting and solidification, dissolution of those elements during solutionizing, and precipitation of phases during aging. This project would focus on the microstructure evolution of Mg-Y, Mg-Gd and Mg-Gd-Y alloys during solidification, solutionizing and aging. The aged samples can be tested under tensile loading to correlate the mechanical properties with microstructure. Thus, the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties obtained through modelling can be validated with the experimental data.

6NML/IPSG/2019/2020/6560 ()2019-11-282020-04-30Ashok KTechnology DevelopmentFast track(6 months)Materials EngineeringOthers

Title: Preparation and certification of Hydrogen Standard (CRM) in Steel

Abstract: Standards/reference material used in hydrogen detection technique is cumbersome in terms of both cost and time as it an imported product in India. CSIR-NML had executed couple of projects (FTT 31 02 and FTC 31 04) under FTT/FTC program and successfully developed hydrogen standard (CRM) in steel, ingenuously. Presently, the developed hydrogen standards are internally consumed by the laboratory for calibration purpose and also supplied (complementary basis) to some of the industries on special request. As a next step, to compete well in the global market, scale up (No of bottles: 100 and No of pin/bottle: 100) and commercialization of the developed product is essential. Identification of suitable steel/raw material, preparation, homogeneity assessment and stability w.r.t hydrogen (in ppm) in various environmental condition is critical in scaling up and commercialization of hydrogen standard in steel are already addressed in FTC MLP 3104. Uncertainty in the hydrogen content is reduced by adopting different methods such as i) heat treatment, ii) introduction of defects into the steels by cold rolling, iii) varying the micro-structural constituents and iv) coating of pin samples by Ni were also addressed in the previous project. Optimum process conditions are identified for production of hydrogen pin samples using stainless steels by studying the long term stability of hydrogen content in the steel samples The present proposal aims to prepare 25,000 nos of pin samples using the facility created in FTC project and followed by certification of the developed product as per the guidelines stated in ISO 17034 for CRM development.

7NML/IPSG/2019/2020/70158 ()2019-11-012020-04-30D.C.SauTechnology DevelopmentFast track(6 months)Extractive MetallurgyPyrometallurgy

Title: Scaling up of the process for production of iron powder from waste iron oxide fines / slimes using hydrogen gas /natural gas

Abstract: India continues to emerge as a major iron and steel producing country in the world and is likely to consolidate its position further, once the National Steel policy is fully realized. However, increase in steel production is likely to strain the natural resource and calls for technology to minimize waste. Blast furnace ironmaking is still and is likely to remain in near future the most dominant route for producing hot metal. It is well known that for production of one ton of sized ore, the feed for blast furnace, almost an equivalent amount of undersize is generated. A major part of this undersize is converted to useful feed stock for blast furnace through sintering. However, extra fineness (<150m) makes a significant fraction of this undersize unsuitable for sintering and also approximately 18 - 25% of slime is generated during washing of run of mine (ROM) ore adds up to the quantity of unutilized/underutilized fines. This fraction is of concern due to impact on ecology as well as loss of huge iron value. It has been observed that none of the existing processes could offer a commercially matured technology as an alternate to blast furnace iron making and thus energy intensive pelletization of fines and their subsequent reduction at relatively high temperature appears to be the only viable option, currently available. Thermodynamic consideration of gaseous reduction of slimes /iron oxide fines indicates that it is possible to convert them directly to metallic iron, bypassing the intermediate FeO stage at significantly low temperature . We have done feasibility studies at a scale of 10 and 250 gms at low temperature resulting in more than 90 % iron powder purity from hematite fines .In this research, suitable grade of iron oxide fines /slimes will be reduced with ecofriendly hydrogen gas in fluidized bed reactor to obtain iron powder of very high purity at a scale of 5 kg under the controlled process conditions.

8NML/IPSG/2019/2020/70579 (OLP 0363)2019-10-012020-09-30 K GOPALA KRISHNAThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Influence of process parameters on properties of SS316L components produced by metal 3D printing using SLM technique

Abstract: Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing process, where the engineering components are builtdirectly from their digital designs. It mainly involves, building the component, layer by layer from their metal/alloy powders, where the powder in a layer is selectively melted according to the digital drawing The critical process parameters such as laser power, layer thickness etc will influence the properties of the part manufactured using SLM. Hence, there exists a need to understand the effect of process parameters on resultant properties of the components. The present proposal is aimed at printing SS316L test coupons by varying the critical process parameters in two levels and analyze their micro-structural features and evaluate their tensile properties. An attempt will be made to correlate the resultant properties with the process parameters and the outcomes can be used to design the properties of 3D printed SS316L components.

9NML/IPSG/2019/2020/71587 ()2019-04-162020-04-15Swapna DeyScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringCorrosion

Title: Hydrogen assisted degradation and fracture in pipeline steel (Module 2)

Abstract: Pipeline steels are widely used for transportation and distribution of oil and natural gas for long distances, and the hydrogen assisted degradation is one of the issues that can affect the structural integrity of these pipelines during long term operation. Pipeline steels can pick-up hydrogen during transport of sour crude oil and other petroleum products. The presence of H2S, CO2 and brine in crude oil not only enhance the corrosion rate but also lead to environmental fracture assisted by enhanced uptake of hydrogen (H) atoms in steels. Moreover, external environmental conditions cause free corroding processes, where hydrogen can be generated on the metal surface as a result of the cathodic counterpart of the anodic dissolution reaction. Furthermore, under service conditions when cathodic protection system is in place, hydrogen charging of pipeline steels is also possible. As result, there is concern of structural integrity of aging buried pipelines having cathodic protection. The proposed work will assess the effect of hydrogen absorption and permeation in pipeline steel by cathodic hydrogen charging in NACE solution and in near neutral pH (NS4) solution, which simulate real operating environment. Therefore, the aim of the study is to obtain realistic data for development of hydrogen embrittlement criteria of steels employed in oil/gas industries. Corrosion is one of the most predominant causes of pipeline failures in oil and gas production, which are related to the physical and chemical factors as well as environmental conditions. Therefore, the study of corrosion by electrochemical methods is also necessary. This work will investigate the corrosion behaviour of pipeline steel by different electrochemical methods (potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)). The proposed research work will extend to study the effects of hydrogen on fracture toughness of the material with the aim to provide an explanation for the hydrogen effect on fracture resistance.

10NML/IPSG/2019/2020/73811 ()2019-11-012020-10-31Dr Atanu DasThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringMaterials Joining

Title: Investigation on Advanced Short-Circuiting Gas Metal Arc Joining of Dissimilar Materials for Automotive Applications

Abstract: Widely different thermophysical properties, little solubility of iron in aluminium and the formation of intermetallic compounds pose critical challenges in joining of aluminium to steel. Advanced pulsed current gas metal arc (GMA) based joining processes are increasingly preferred in joining aluminium and steel sheets due to its adroitness to control heat input by effective monitoring and modulating the current and voltage pulses. Therefore, an attempt is undertaken in the present work to join AA5052 alloy and galvanized steel sheets using an advanced pulsed current GMA joining technique. The work incorporates real-time monitoring of current and voltage transients and probing their effect on heat input, growth of intermetallic phase layer, joint strength, joint distortion and the induced residual stress using both experimental study and process modeling. A three-dimensional coupled thermal mechanical analysis will be carried out further to compute primarily thermal cycles and joint distortion at different joining conditions. The computed results of thermal cycles and joint distortion will be validated with the corresponding experimentally measured results.

11NML/IPSG/2019/2020/76566 ()2019-10-012020-09-30Rashmi SinglaScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & EnvironmentMetallurgical/Mineral Waste Utilisation

Title: Development of inorganic-organic hybrid geopolymers (Module-II)

Abstract: Geopolymer based materials show excellent mechanical properties, thermal stability, freeze-thaw, acid and fire resistance, long term durability etc. Above all, the use of geopolymers can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions up to 80% in comparison to traditional cement based materials. However, their brittle mechanical behavior and consequently low fracture toughness limits their extensive applications as structural material. This problem can be overcome through the development of superior composite materials/hybrids tailored for the intended applications in a specific manner. In module-I, optimisation of the solution concentration and alkali to alkali silicate ratio has been achieved with reference inorganic based geopolymer. Studies of the mechanical property i.e. compressive strength have been carried out with the reference as well as hybrid geopolymers as a basis for choosing organic resins. In continuation with this, module-II aims to assess the flexural strength of the hybrids with detailed characterization studies. Further, module-II would attempt mechanical activation of the organic and inorganic phases to increase the chemical compatibility between the two and its effect on the mechanical properties followed by detailed characterization. Thus, the outcome of the present work would be an optimized processing route and a suitable organic polymer for producing an inorganic-organic hybrid geopolymer having significantly enhanced compressive strength and fracture toughness with respect to the metakaolin-based inorganic geopolymer matrix.

12NML/IPSG/2019/2020/78585 ()2019-10-162020-10-15SUMANTA KUMAR PRADHANThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Implication of grain boundary engineering to combat molten salt corrosion of Alloy 617 and Super 304H in concentrated solar power plant

Abstract: High temperature corrosion of thermal energy storage (TES) materials with molten salts is one of the major challenges in the concentrated solar power (CSP) plants. In this regard, several corrosion preventive methods like micro alloying, coating, inhibitors etc. have been adopted in order to control the corrosion rate of the TES materials. However, these preventive methods are only system specific and even not effective as expected. Therefore, the present work aims to improve the hot corrosion resistance of the TES materials by optimization of grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) through grain boundary engineering (GBE) approach. Thermo-mechanical based GBE approach will be adopted to alter the microstructural characteristics of the specimens. Such an action will result in an increase in the fraction of special boundaries which are known to be resistant to corrosion. Eventually, the present work would provide us a road-map to enhance the hot corrosion resistance microstructure of the TES materials through GBE approach.

13NML/IPSG/2019/2020/82004 ()2019-10-012020-09-30NAVEENAThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringMechanical Behaviour of Materials

Title: Mechanical properties evaluation of weld joints through ball indentation technique and its verification by standard test

Abstract: Ball indentation (BI) test technique is a promising method for evaluation of mechanical properties where a spherical (ball) indenter is forced onto the surface of a metallic sample or a structural component to determine tensile properties and fracture toughness. It can either be used in-situ or in laboratory scale. This technique is uniquely suitable for characterizing mechanical properties of narrow microstructural regions such as heat-affected zones (HAZ), weld metal region of weld joints. For in-situ application it is nearly non-destructive since no material is removed from the test surface. Only a smooth shallow spherical indentation is left at the end of the test. This spherical impression is harmless for the test structure because it has no sharp. Therefore, the components subjected to indentation tests will be unaffected. Aim of the present proposal is to assess mechanical properties (tensile properties) of different weld joints of various combinations of steels by using BI technique. Weld joints demonstrate mechanical properties variation across the joints because of varied microstructures in the weld metal, HAZ and base metal. Variation in properties of different zones will be correlated with their corresponding microstructure. Basically, this work has been chosen to become familiar with and to develop expertise on BI system for that a FTT project was applied.

14NML/IPSG/2019/2020/8654 ()2019-10-012020-09-30Soni Scholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringSurface Modification

Title: Development of Hard and Optically transparent nanocomposite coatings for wear and electronic applications. (Module III: Investigation of strain rate sensitivity and nanoindentation creep behavior of Al-Si-N thin films)

Abstract: Al-Si-N nanocomposite thin films are a suitable candidate for protective optical coatings used in architectural windows, solar water heating devices, transparent windows for furnaces etc. Hardness, elastic modulus, wear resistance etc. are some of the key properties that describe the mechanical behavior of the coating. There detailed investigation is required in order to tailor the film microstructure for desirable applications. Apart from these primary mechanical properties, strain rate sensitivity and activation volume are also vital time dependent parameters that quantify the deformation mechanism of a bulk or coating system. The assessment of these parameters gives a deep insight into the dislocation movement phenomena that is the driving force behind the deformation of a particular material. So these properties will be investigated for the Al-Si-N coating using nanoindentation and will be correlated with the film microstructure. The comparison of nanocomposite Al-Si-N with metal Al and metal alloy Al-Si films will also be carried out.

15NML/IPSG/2019/2020/88142 ()2019-10-182020-10-19Shivendra SinhaScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Development of Metal Organic Framework based macro-porous composite beads for adsorptive separation of REEs from simulated solution.

Abstract: With ever-growing technological advancement, it is realized that the Rare Earth Elements (REE’s) are omnipresent. They are extensively used in cell phone, televisions, led lights bulbs, batteries, magnets, wind turbines and so forth; making it a critically useful element in recent scenario. However, considering its limited sources coupled with huge demand, it is thus imperative to recover these elements from alternative sources (like effluents, geothermal brine, dilute leach solution of lean grade resources) to augment the feedstock to meet the current needs. Thus, development of efficient process for separation of REEs is of great significance. In this regard, this Ph.D. module will explore the development of MOF based macro-porous composite beads for adsorptive separation of REEs from simulated solution. Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are new generation, highly porous and chemically stable nano-material with flexibility of functionalization and have been proven for adsorptive separation of heavy metals from effluents/dilutes solutions. However, their potential is untapped in the separation of rare earth elements along with its limited usage in dynamic column filtration owing to its size that restricts the bed permeability. Thus, this study attempts to identify and functionalized MOF to render it suitable for REE extraction along with compositing with compatible polymeric material to porous prepare beads desirable for dynamic column filtration.

16NML/IPSG/2019/2020/93169 ()2019-10-152020-10-14Y UshaThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Study of fluidized angles and boundary wall effects on density stratification in pulsated air stratifier using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)

Abstract: Quantifying the airflow field in air stratifier is crucial for uniform airflow distribution and stratification of particles by air pulsation. Airflow field measurement can provide quantitative information of airflow distribution and local air velocity around the separation plate with varied angular holes. Thus the comparison will be made to study the relation of separation plate different angular holes with stratification effectiveness.

17NML/IPSG/2019/2020/93795 ()2019-10-012020-09-30Swati PramikScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Rational Design of Solvent System: A Novel Approach for Recycling Metals from leach solution of Cathode Materials of Lithium-ion Batteries by solvent extraction. (Module-II Studies on the physico-chemical behavior of mixture of amine (pri, sec, ter and quart amines) and organophosphoric compounds (Phosphoric, phosphonic and phosphinic acids) for the solvent extraction and separation of Li, Co, Ni and Mn.)

Abstract: The state-of-the-art shows the main challenges involved in the LiBs recycling and the importance of the development of new extracting agents for the selective recovery of Co, Ni, Mn and Li. The development of versatile processes capable to treat a large variety of LiBs technology utilizing Co, Ni, Mn and Li elements is one of these challenges. It could be reached by developing new selective and efficient extractants and implementing optimised and adapted flowsheets in order to minimize effluent generation and reactive consumption. For this goal, amine and organophosphorus acids appear as the best choice of extractants .The concept of this project for developing new extraction solvents relies on the use of a mixture of two extracting functions in the extraction solvent, which are active or non-active depending on the operating conditions. Cationic exchangers bear acidic function which are active at pH greater than the pKa value while amine extractants can extract metals provided that they exist as anionic species, i.e. at high sulfate or chloride concentration in the leach solution. Therefore, the concept introduced could be used to separate Co(II), Ni(II) and Mn(II) as they form both cationic and anionic species depending on the pH and chloride concentration of aqueous solution. Effect of structural changes of both amines and organophosphorus extractants towards extraction of Li, Co, Ni and Mn and physico-chemistry involved in the liquid-liquid extraction will be evaluated by correlating extraction and separation with pka, pkb and aggregation behavior of extractants in diferent diluents systems.

18NML/IPSG/2019/2020/94496 ()2019-04-152020-04-14Avanish Kumar ChandanScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of high entropy alloys at ambient and sub-ambient temperatures

Abstract: Abstract: Owing to the vast latitude offered by the High Entropy Alloys (HEAs) in terms of versatility in alloy design and microstructure, the research in HEAs is trending worldwide. Since their advent more than a decade ago, HEAs have been attracting tremendous research attention due to attractive properties over conventional engineering materials, such as ultra-high fracture toughness exceeding that of most metals and alloys, excellent strength comparable to that of structural ceramics and metallic glasses, superconductivity, adequate corrosion resistance etc. The equi-atomic, fully FCC structure, FeMnCrCoNi alloy is one of the most successful HEA with exceptional mechanical properties at cryo temperatures. However, the room temperature properties of the same is not attractive. The reason for lucrative mechanical properties of this alloy is the occurrence of nano-twins at cryo temperature but not at room temperature during deformation. Deformation behaviour of FCC system is principally governed by stacking fault energy (SFE). SFE on the other hand is dependent on composition of the system and service temperature. The present study aims to design new lean alloys based on the SFE of the resulting alloy. The effect of composition vis a vis SFE on the deformation behaviour of the alloy will be studied. Role of various SFE dependent deformation characteristics on the final mechanical properties at ambient and sub-ambient temperatures will be investigated.