Ongoing Projects

S.No. Number Start Date End Date Project Leader Category Type Core Area Sub Area
1NML/IPSG/2019/2019/30115 ()2019-10-152020-10-15Manish Kumar NayakScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Development of a pseudo-capacitive nanocomposite electrode material for high energy supercapacitors.

Abstract: Due to the growing demand for portable power sources, researchers are attempting to develop energy storage devices that offer greater power and energy density as well as better cycle stability. In the same context, supercapacitors are part of the next generation energy storage devices, with excellent charge / discharge characteristics and long cycle stability. However, the main difficulty of a supercapacitor is its low energy density. Energy density of a supercapacitor depends on two factors i.e. capacitance value and operating potential window. Enhancements of both are required for achieving high energy density of supercapacitors. The materials which can perform continuous reversible Faradaic redox reaction cycle, like in batteries, exhibit better energy density than the Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) material. Thus, the most promising approach to achieving higher energy densities without compromising power density is the development of a heterostructured nanocomposite from pseudo-capacitive materials, able to accumulate energy through rapid redox reactions. To develop such a nanocomposite, we plan to use a new series of 2D materials called MXene (composed of carbides / nitrides / carbonitrides of transition metals) and metal oxides / sulfides. It is expected that metal oxides / sulfides nanostructures will grow uniformly on conductive MXene sheets to form 3-dimensional interconnected heterostructure using hydrothermal method. A review of the literature shows that the dynamic behavior of the Faradic reaction has been significantly improved and that its unique heterostructure provides more efficient active sites for rapid reversible redox reactions, thereby significantly increasing electrochemical storage capacity. It is therefore a promising candidate for future high energy supercapacitors.

2NML/IPSG/2019/2020/43105 ()2019-10-012020-09-30Arpita GhoshThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationNon-destructive Evaluation

Title: Predicting the probability of failure of power plant components using NDE parameters.

Abstract: Nondestructive assessment of damage that occurs in components during service plays a major role in condition monitoring and residual life estimation of in-service components/structures. Ultrasonic methods have been found to be effective for this purpose. However, most of these conventional methods using ultrasonic characteristics in the linear elastic region are only sensitive to gross defects but much less sensitive to micro-damage. Recently, nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU) has been established as an effective tool for the nondestructive evaluation of the performance of materials for various types of damage, including creep damage characterization. The NLU parameter β provides a measure of the extent of damage within the crept specimens under different test conditions. This information is not sufficient to predict the remaining useful life of any power plant component. The knowledge of remaining useful life and the probability of failure at any point of time in the life cycle of any component would be important information for the plant operators to prevent failure. The present investigation deals with obtaining a predictive model from NLU parameter β which would assist in predicting the remaining useful life of power plant components irrespective of temperature and stress conditions.

3NML/IPSG/2019/2020/45476 ()2019-10-012020-09-30Chandra Veer SinghScholastic ResearchExpress Track(3 Months)Materials EvaluationMechanical Behaviour of Materials

Title: Module 1: High Temperature Crack Growth of Cr-Mo Steels

Abstract: The growth of cracks strongly depends on the amount of the material in the vicinity of crack-tip coupled with the ductility of the material. Varied combinations of the two, give rise to distinct constraint conditions for a growing crack. The quantitative understanding of crack-growth under different constraint conditions is imperative to ensure the integrity of the components especially operating at higher temperatures. The experiments pertaining to study the effect of constraint wherein specimens of varying geometries and sizes would be explored. This work would provide insight into the relevant information required for the next generation of design codes and assessment procedures

4NML/IPSG/2019/2020/63461 ()2019-10-012020-09-30Dr Krishnendu MukherjeeThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Phase field modelling on microstructure evolution of Mg-alloys during solidification and aging

Abstract: Proposed project aims to model the microstructure evolution of Mg-alloys during solidification and aging by phase field modelling. High strength Mg alloys are being developed at NML for biodegradable implant applications. It is known that the mechanical and degradation properties of the alloys are dependent on the microstructure. Therefore, modeling microstructure evolution and correlating it with the mechanical properties would in turn be useful for identifying the composition and processing methods to achieve the target properties. Microstructure modelling would be able to quantify the segregation of alloying elements during casting and solidification, dissolution of those elements during solutionizing, and precipitation of phases during aging. This project would focus on the microstructure evolution of Mg-Y, Mg-Gd and Mg-Gd-Y alloys during solidification, solutionizing and aging. The aged samples can be tested under tensile loading to correlate the mechanical properties with microstructure. Thus, the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties obtained through modelling can be validated with the experimental data.

5NML/IPSG/2019/2020/70579 (OLP 0363)2019-10-012020-09-30 K GOPALA KRISHNAThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Influence of process parameters on properties of SS316L components produced by metal 3D printing using SLM technique

Abstract: Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing process, where the engineering components are builtdirectly from their digital designs. It mainly involves, building the component, layer by layer from their metal/alloy powders, where the powder in a layer is selectively melted according to the digital drawing The critical process parameters such as laser power, layer thickness etc will influence the properties of the part manufactured using SLM. Hence, there exists a need to understand the effect of process parameters on resultant properties of the components. The present proposal is aimed at printing SS316L test coupons by varying the critical process parameters in two levels and analyze their micro-structural features and evaluate their tensile properties. An attempt will be made to correlate the resultant properties with the process parameters and the outcomes can be used to design the properties of 3D printed SS316L components.

6NML/IPSG/2019/2020/73811 ()2019-11-012020-10-31Dr Atanu DasThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringMaterials Joining

Title: Investigation on Advanced Short-Circuiting Gas Metal Arc Joining of Dissimilar Materials for Automotive Applications

Abstract: Widely different thermophysical properties, little solubility of iron in aluminium and the formation of intermetallic compounds pose critical challenges in joining of aluminium to steel. Advanced pulsed current gas metal arc (GMA) based joining processes are increasingly preferred in joining aluminium and steel sheets due to its adroitness to control heat input by effective monitoring and modulating the current and voltage pulses. Therefore, an attempt is undertaken in the present work to join AA5052 alloy and galvanized steel sheets using an advanced pulsed current GMA joining technique. The work incorporates real-time monitoring of current and voltage transients and probing their effect on heat input, growth of intermetallic phase layer, joint strength, joint distortion and the induced residual stress using both experimental study and process modeling. A three-dimensional coupled thermal mechanical analysis will be carried out further to compute primarily thermal cycles and joint distortion at different joining conditions. The computed results of thermal cycles and joint distortion will be validated with the corresponding experimentally measured results.

7NML/IPSG/2019/2020/76566 ()2019-10-012020-09-30Rashmi SinglaScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & EnvironmentMetallurgical/Mineral Waste Utilisation

Title: Development of inorganic-organic hybrid geopolymers (Module-II)

Abstract: Geopolymer based materials show excellent mechanical properties, thermal stability, freeze-thaw, acid and fire resistance, long term durability etc. Above all, the use of geopolymers can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions up to 80% in comparison to traditional cement based materials. However, their brittle mechanical behavior and consequently low fracture toughness limits their extensive applications as structural material. This problem can be overcome through the development of superior composite materials/hybrids tailored for the intended applications in a specific manner. In module-I, optimisation of the solution concentration and alkali to alkali silicate ratio has been achieved with reference inorganic based geopolymer. Studies of the mechanical property i.e. compressive strength have been carried out with the reference as well as hybrid geopolymers as a basis for choosing organic resins. In continuation with this, module-II aims to assess the flexural strength of the hybrids with detailed characterization studies. Further, module-II would attempt mechanical activation of the organic and inorganic phases to increase the chemical compatibility between the two and its effect on the mechanical properties followed by detailed characterization. Thus, the outcome of the present work would be an optimized processing route and a suitable organic polymer for producing an inorganic-organic hybrid geopolymer having significantly enhanced compressive strength and fracture toughness with respect to the metakaolin-based inorganic geopolymer matrix.

8NML/IPSG/2019/2020/78585 ()2019-10-162020-10-15SUMANTA KUMAR PRADHANThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Implication of grain boundary engineering to combat molten salt corrosion of Alloy 617 and Super 304H in concentrated solar power plant

Abstract: High temperature corrosion of thermal energy storage (TES) materials with molten salts is one of the major challenges in the concentrated solar power (CSP) plants. In this regard, several corrosion preventive methods like micro alloying, coating, inhibitors etc. have been adopted in order to control the corrosion rate of the TES materials. However, these preventive methods are only system specific and even not effective as expected. Therefore, the present work aims to improve the hot corrosion resistance of the TES materials by optimization of grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) through grain boundary engineering (GBE) approach. Thermo-mechanical based GBE approach will be adopted to alter the microstructural characteristics of the specimens. Such an action will result in an increase in the fraction of special boundaries which are known to be resistant to corrosion. Eventually, the present work would provide us a road-map to enhance the hot corrosion resistance microstructure of the TES materials through GBE approach.

9NML/IPSG/2019/2020/82004 ()2019-10-012020-09-30NAVEENAThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringMechanical Behaviour of Materials

Title: Mechanical properties evaluation of weld joints through ball indentation technique and its verification by standard test

Abstract: Ball indentation (BI) test technique is a promising method for evaluation of mechanical properties where a spherical (ball) indenter is forced onto the surface of a metallic sample or a structural component to determine tensile properties and fracture toughness. It can either be used in-situ or in laboratory scale. This technique is uniquely suitable for characterizing mechanical properties of narrow microstructural regions such as heat-affected zones (HAZ), weld metal region of weld joints. For in-situ application it is nearly non-destructive since no material is removed from the test surface. Only a smooth shallow spherical indentation is left at the end of the test. This spherical impression is harmless for the test structure because it has no sharp. Therefore, the components subjected to indentation tests will be unaffected. Aim of the present proposal is to assess mechanical properties (tensile properties) of different weld joints of various combinations of steels by using BI technique. Weld joints demonstrate mechanical properties variation across the joints because of varied microstructures in the weld metal, HAZ and base metal. Variation in properties of different zones will be correlated with their corresponding microstructure. Basically, this work has been chosen to become familiar with and to develop expertise on BI system for that a FTT project was applied.

10NML/IPSG/2019/2020/8654 ()2019-10-012020-09-30Soni Scholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringSurface Modification

Title: Development of Hard and Optically transparent nanocomposite coatings for wear and electronic applications. (Module III: Investigation of strain rate sensitivity and nanoindentation creep behavior of Al-Si-N thin films)

Abstract: Al-Si-N nanocomposite thin films are a suitable candidate for protective optical coatings used in architectural windows, solar water heating devices, transparent windows for furnaces etc. Hardness, elastic modulus, wear resistance etc. are some of the key properties that describe the mechanical behavior of the coating. There detailed investigation is required in order to tailor the film microstructure for desirable applications. Apart from these primary mechanical properties, strain rate sensitivity and activation volume are also vital time dependent parameters that quantify the deformation mechanism of a bulk or coating system. The assessment of these parameters gives a deep insight into the dislocation movement phenomena that is the driving force behind the deformation of a particular material. So these properties will be investigated for the Al-Si-N coating using nanoindentation and will be correlated with the film microstructure. The comparison of nanocomposite Al-Si-N with metal Al and metal alloy Al-Si films will also be carried out.

11NML/IPSG/2019/2020/88142 ()2019-10-182020-10-19Shivendra SinhaScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Development of Metal Organic Framework based macro-porous composite beads for adsorptive separation of REEs from simulated solution.

Abstract: With ever-growing technological advancement, it is realized that the Rare Earth Elements (REE’s) are omnipresent. They are extensively used in cell phone, televisions, led lights bulbs, batteries, magnets, wind turbines and so forth; making it a critically useful element in recent scenario. However, considering its limited sources coupled with huge demand, it is thus imperative to recover these elements from alternative sources (like effluents, geothermal brine, dilute leach solution of lean grade resources) to augment the feedstock to meet the current needs. Thus, development of efficient process for separation of REEs is of great significance. In this regard, this Ph.D. module will explore the development of MOF based macro-porous composite beads for adsorptive separation of REEs from simulated solution. Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are new generation, highly porous and chemically stable nano-material with flexibility of functionalization and have been proven for adsorptive separation of heavy metals from effluents/dilutes solutions. However, their potential is untapped in the separation of rare earth elements along with its limited usage in dynamic column filtration owing to its size that restricts the bed permeability. Thus, this study attempts to identify and functionalized MOF to render it suitable for REE extraction along with compositing with compatible polymeric material to porous prepare beads desirable for dynamic column filtration.

12NML/IPSG/2019/2020/93169 ()2019-10-152020-10-14Y UshaThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Study of fluidized angles and boundary wall effects on density stratification in pulsated air stratifier using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)

Abstract: Quantifying the airflow field in air stratifier is crucial for uniform airflow distribution and stratification of particles by air pulsation. Airflow field measurement can provide quantitative information of airflow distribution and local air velocity around the separation plate with varied angular holes. Thus the comparison will be made to study the relation of separation plate different angular holes with stratification effectiveness.

13NML/IPSG/2019/2020/93795 ()2019-10-012020-09-30Swati PramikScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Rational Design of Solvent System: A Novel Approach for Recycling Metals from leach solution of Cathode Materials of Lithium-ion Batteries by solvent extraction. (Module-II Studies on the physico-chemical behavior of mixture of amine (pri, sec, ter and quart amines) and organophosphoric compounds (Phosphoric, phosphonic and phosphinic acids) for the solvent extraction and separation of Li, Co, Ni and Mn.)

Abstract: The state-of-the-art shows the main challenges involved in the LiBs recycling and the importance of the development of new extracting agents for the selective recovery of Co, Ni, Mn and Li. The development of versatile processes capable to treat a large variety of LiBs technology utilizing Co, Ni, Mn and Li elements is one of these challenges. It could be reached by developing new selective and efficient extractants and implementing optimised and adapted flowsheets in order to minimize effluent generation and reactive consumption. For this goal, amine and organophosphorus acids appear as the best choice of extractants .The concept of this project for developing new extraction solvents relies on the use of a mixture of two extracting functions in the extraction solvent, which are active or non-active depending on the operating conditions. Cationic exchangers bear acidic function which are active at pH greater than the pKa value while amine extractants can extract metals provided that they exist as anionic species, i.e. at high sulfate or chloride concentration in the leach solution. Therefore, the concept introduced could be used to separate Co(II), Ni(II) and Mn(II) as they form both cationic and anionic species depending on the pH and chloride concentration of aqueous solution. Effect of structural changes of both amines and organophosphorus extractants towards extraction of Li, Co, Ni and Mn and physico-chemistry involved in the liquid-liquid extraction will be evaluated by correlating extraction and separation with pka, pkb and aggregation behavior of extractants in diferent diluents systems.

14NML/IPSG/2020/2021/14684 ()2020-04-012021-03-31Vaibhav GaurScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMicrostructural Characterisation

Title: Studies on stability and processing of Face centered cubic Titanium

Abstract: A micro-scale partial transformation of hcp structure titanium alloys to the fcc was reported by several researchers. FCC structure is expected to enhance mechanical properties of otherwise titanium with hcp/bcc structure. This was elucidated by limited modeling exercise due to the absence of bulk fcc Ti. Because of the above, we propose to explore a possible way of producing stable fcc titanium in bulk. This would enable in determining the mechanical behavior of titanium which is not reported in the literature in detail so far. In this study, an attempt will be made to establish the lattice transition temperature by using DSC and dilatometry techniques. After establishing the beta transus temperature, hcp titanium will be subjected to solution treatment followed by aging for various durations at different temperature intervals to maximize fcc titanium in the microstructure. The evolving microstructure will be further characterized for its structure and microstructure using advanced characterization techniques. A few to mention, the transformation of FCC titanium and its orientation relationship with HCP titanium. An attempt will be made to understand the effect of phase composition on the tensile deformation behavior mechanism. Apart from that, I would also investigate the conditions for the stability of FCC titanium during plastic deformation processes.

15NML/IPSG/2020/2021/18477 ()2020-06-012021-05-30KOMAL SINGHScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringSurface Modification

Title: Development of high efficiency Tin Selenide based Thermoelectric and optically tunable coatings for alternative energy harvesting from different industrial applications (Module II) : Effect of Doping on Tin selenide

Abstract: Thermoelectric and optically tunable coatings are very much required for alternative energy harvesting from different industrial applications. They are considered to be great resource for the alternative energy to tap many waste heat energies in different industrial processing right from metallurgical industry to electronic industry. Among different thermoelectric materials selenides have shown reasonably higher figure of merit (ZT). A higher figure of merit can be obtained in single crystal however they are very brittle and hence limits the device applications. The polycrystalline bulk sample show much lesser efficiency. Hence, doping can play an important role for development of thermoelectric material with high figure of merit. Doping of Tin selenide (SnSe) have shown good properties. The proposed research aims for the development of SnSe coating with high figure of merit and optically band gap tunable coatings by suitable doping. The investigation of the different mechanisms and structure property correlation of thermoelectric, thermal, electrical, structural and microstructure.

16NML/IPSG/2020/2021/23184 ()2020-06-012020-11-30Dr. Shailendra Kumar JhaThematic ResearchFast track(6 months)Surface EngineeringSurface Modification

Title: Controlled Electrofabrication of Nanostructured Corrosion and Powdering Resistant Compositionally Modulated Multilayer (CMM) Zn-Alloy Coatings on Advanced High Strength Steels Alternate to Galvannealed Products

Abstract: The zinc based corrosion resistant coatings, often hot-dip galvanized (GI) or galvannealed (GA), is used for the production of strong, corrosion resistant parts by the automotive community, but concerns about cracking and low powdering resistance remain. To mitigate the cracking and low powdering resistance of GA coatings, we are going to develop compositionally modulated multilayer Zn-alloy (Zn-Fe) coating on advanced high strength steel (AHSS) via controlled electrodeposition approach. Finally we will relate the micro- and nanostructural evolution in the Zn-Fe coatings under rapid heat treatment for short duration and its impact to the cracking response in specimens deformed in uniaxial tension at elevated temperature. The improved corrosion resistance characteristics will be also investigated by different electrochemical methods for better optimization of multilayer coatings with different configurations in terms of composition and number of layers.

17NML/IPSG/2020/2021/23956 ()2020-06-012021-05-30Shubhada KarR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Precipitation hardened compositionally complex alloys

Abstract: In recent years, one of the main focus areas of the research is to design and process materials having excellent strength-ductility synergy for various special applications in automotive and aerospace sectors. The use of multi-phase compositionally complex alloys (CCAs) results in deterioration of mechanical properties due to the formation of various hard intermetallic phases. Though, these intermetallics increase the strength of the materials, however, they reduce ductility. This strength-ductility trade-off can be overcome by introducing precipitation hardening via ordered coherent precipitates in a single phase face centred cubic structure. Therefore, in the present proposal, it is envisaged to design a single phase CCA that can be precipitation hardened through suitably designing thermo-mechanical processing and microstructure control to obtain excellent combination of strength and ductility. The idea is to use an appropriate combination of alloying elements through novel alloy design techniques in order to maintain the single phase containing desired amount of favorable precipitates. This will be followed by suitably designed thermo-mechanical process to achieve the uniform distribution of fine precipitates with desired morphology.

18NML/IPSG/2020/2021/28152 ()2020-06-012020-11-30Dr. Ashok Kumar MohantyTechnology DevelopmentFast track(6 months)Applied & Analytical ChemistrySurface Chemistry

Title: Ceramic Coating for Anti-corrosion and High Temperature Oxidation Resistance of Mild Steel

Abstract: Corrosion of mild steel in extreme corrosive environments (like acid fumes in pickling plants) is a serious industrial concern. Similarly, corrosion of steel at high temperature (400-900 0C) is a major industrial problem. Ceramic coating is one of the possible solutions to address both the problems. Ceramic materials being both corrosion and high temperature resistant will provide efficient corrosion protection to steel material. The objective of the present proposal is to formulate low cost and scalable ceramic coatings on mild steel and alloy steels. Magnesium phosphate and magnesium chromate based ceramic coatings will be formulated and their corrosion resistance performance in acid fume and high temperature environments will be evaluated. Recently, Tata Steel and Vedanta have expressed their interest for these kind of coatings due to their industry specific requirements. Initial results indicates magnesium phosphate and magnesium chromate based ceramic coatings are promising for these type of applications.

19NML/IPSG/2020/2021/32002 ()2020-04-012021-03-31Gaurav Kumar BansalScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Development of Low Carbon Bainitic Steels (Module-III)

Abstract: The lower bainitic transformation in high and medium carbon steel has shown to achieve excellent strength-ductility combinations due to presence of nanobainite (20-40 nm). However, transformation kinetics has been found to be slow due to low temperatures involved. Subsequently, researches on low carbon steel (0.25-0.35 wt.%) with enhanced substitutional elements have resulted in coalescence of bainitic plates (120-150 nm) that lead to reduction in toughness of steel. Also, the reasons behind such coalescence are not fully understood. The possible options to further refine the bainite are modification in chemical composition of steel, altering the heat treatment schedule and controlling the prior austenite grain size through deformation of austenite. Also, the possibilities to achieve nano-bainite in steel containing carbon < 0.2 wt.% has not been given due consideration. However, the low carbon content allows broader application avenues. Therefore, the present work aims at designing a suitable alloy with carbon content < 0.2 wt.% and to study the bainite transformation through various processing routes so as to achieve highly refined bainite.

20NML/IPSG/2020/2021/34836 ()2020-06-012020-11-30Roshan KumarThematic ResearchFast track(6 months)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Investigations on the machinability and wire drawability of degradable Mg alloys.

Abstract: Biodegradable metallic materials are of great interest in the field of implants development as it avoids any follow - up surgery to remove implants after healing is complete. These implants provide sufficient strength to bone during healing and after that it degrades inside body. Mg alloys are potential biomaterials which can be used to develop smart implants due to suitable mechanical properties and safe biodegradation. Alloys with suitable machinability and wire drawability needs to be developed for fabricating implants. Current proposal is to investigate the machinability of the biocompatible high strength Mg alloys developed at CSIR-NML. The proposed study would also evaluate the wire drawability of the intended alloys towards implant fabrication.

21NML/IPSG/2020/2021/59959 ()2020-06-012021-05-31Ibrahim Momoh Bello OmiogbemiScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringMaterials Joining

Title: Effect of Electrode Composition on the Mechanical and Corrosion Behaviour of Welded Duplex Stainless Steel in Corrosive Environments.

Abstract: There has been a great need to optimise electrode flux coating formulation that is more suitable for duplex stainless steels (DSS) and other related stainless steels welding without impairing the ferrite-austenite phases and with excellent mechanical and corrosion resistant properties, suitable for applications in oil and gas industry. The present study is geared towards investigating the effect of electrode composition on the mechanical and corrosion behaviour of welded duplex stainless steel (DSS) in corrosive environments. Preliminary studies will be done on effect of different flux ingredients on final composition of alloying elements (chromium, nickel and molybdenum) in weld metal for DSS electrode development. Extreme vertices design will be adopted in flux formulation due to its flexibility of correlating flux ingredients proportions on their responses. The formulated flux is targeted to possess basicity index of ≥ 1.2, which will enhance the reduction of oxygen content in the electrode, hence its inclusion in the weldment. Thermal stability of the formulated flux will be done using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Few types of electrodes will be developed by designing the flux and will be evaluated for qualifications like mechanical properties and corrosion properties as per applicable codes. A novel optimised formulation for DSS electrode capable of seamlessly remedy the corrosion of DSS structures at welded joint will be developed. The mechanical, microstructural and corrosion resistant properties will be determined to validate the integrity of weldment and to establish its applicability and performance in service environments

22NML/IPSG/2020/2021/69355 ()2020-06-012021-05-31Kumari RubyThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Characterization of microbubbles and its subsequent application in fine particle separation

Abstract: Depletion of high-grade resources has necessitated the use of low-grade fines,which contain good amount of mineral values and also liberate in finer sizes. Frothflotation, a physico- chemical surface-based process, is the most established solution, both technologically and economically, compared to other alternatives forfines beneficiation (for oxide and sulphide mineral particles). For a successful and effective flotation performance, an understanding of the mineral surface and proper selection of the surfactant/reagentregimes along with their molecular chemistry and their specific adsorption mechanism are mandated. Objective of the present work is to understand the complexity of the flotation processalong with adsorption and interaction mechanism of different surfactants in accordance to mineral surface characteristics and their dependency on manymicroevents.

23NML/IPSG/2020/2021/75627 ()2020-06-012021-05-30Avanish Kumar ChandanScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of high entropy alloys at ambient and sub-ambient temperatures (Module 3)

Abstract: Owing to the vast latitude offered by the High Entropy Alloys (HEAs) in terms of versatility in alloy design and microstructure, the research in HEAs is trending worldwide. Since their advent more than a decade ago, HEAs have been attracting tremendous research attention due to attractive properties over conventional engineering materials, such as ultra-high fracture toughness exceeding that of most metals and alloys, excellent strength comparable to that of structural ceramics and metallic glasses, superconductivity, adequate corrosion resistance etc. The equi-atomic, fully FCC structure, FeMnCrCoNi alloy is one of the most successful HEA with exceptional mechanical properties at cryo temperatures. However, the room temperature properties of the same is not attractive. The reason for lucrative mechanical properties of this alloy is the occurrence of nano-twins at cryo temperature but not at room temperature during deformation. Deformation behaviour of FCC system is principally governed by stacking fault energy (SFE). SFE, on the other hand, is dependent on composition of the system and service temperature. The present study aims to design new lean alloys based on the SFE of the resulting alloy. The effect of composition vis a vis SFE on the deformation behaviour of the alloy will be studied. Role of various SFE dependent deformation characteristics on the final mechanical properties at ambient and sub-ambient temperatures will be investigated.

24NML/IPSG/2020/2021/89138 ()2020-06-012020-11-30Pallab BhattacharyaThematic ResearchFast track(6 months)OthersOthers

Title: Biomass derived activated carbon based prototype supercapacitor for real applications

Abstract: Cheap energy storage devices like supercapacitors and batteries are the need of hour for various modern applications including electric vehicles, mobile phones and many other modern electrical gadgets. In between supercapacitors and batteries, the former is much safer and having higher power density than that of the later. But supercapacitors are having serious issues with the energy density. Therefore, this proposal aims to develop activated carbon from the waste biomass and then fabrication of high performing supercapacitors. Since the raw materials for the proposed electrode materials are the waste bio-materials like fruit and vegetable skins, human hair, nails etc. so, the cost of the developed device will be minimal. The developed supercapacitor device will be safer also as the aqueous electrolyte will be used for the operations. Though few products in this category are available in market but they are either of high price or low in performance. Therefore, this proposal is significant in terms of development of cheap energy storage device like supercapacitors.

25NML/IPSG/2020/2021/91783 ()2020-06-012021-05-31MOHANA RAO ANDAVARAPUScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Characterization, Beneficiation and Coke Formation Studies on Low Volatile Coking Coal for Metallurgical Utility (Module-I)

Abstract: Coking coal is an essential raw material in the metallurgical industry, where it is used primarily as an energy source and also as a reducing agent in the blast furnace. According to the World Coal Association, 70% of the worlds steel production depends on coal and 41% of the world's electricity generation is through coal. Currently, domestic steelmakers meet 70% of their coking coal requirement through imports. The good quality coking coals of the upper seams are fast depleting leaving behind the inferior quality lower seam coal. The lower seam coals presently being mined are mostly Low Volatile Coking (LVC) coal. These coals are presently being mined both in Jharia and Bokaro Coalfields and the available resources are more than 50% of the overall coking coal reserves in India. LVC coals are characterized by high raw coal ash content and difficult-to-wash as these coals have a high percentage of near gravity materials. The liberation characteristics of this type of coal are very poor due to the highly inter-grown nature of the coal. Therefore, they are being diverted for non-metallurgical uses. The worldwide coking coal beneficiation practice is carried out by a combination of gravity and flotation techniques for producing clean coking coal. There is a loss of significant valuable coal in the tailings due to the interlocking of coal with gangues, poor technology, and process bottlenecks. In many cases the finely ground feed does not respond well to process involving simple gravitational force for recovering the valuable minerals, hence processing under higher G-force may be worth investigating. Centrifugal separators use enhanced gravitational force for processing ultrafine particles. Limited work has been done on Low volatile coking coal fines (Sen et al, 1994; Chatterjee and Baranwal, 2007; Gouricharan et al, 2009; S.Bhattacharya, 2016). However, centrifugal separators for these coals have not been attempted yet. Hence it is very much necessary to collect scarce commodities to increase the clean coal productivity by adopting a centrifugal separation route. An attempt will be made to see the technical feasibility of washing LVC coals at 13% ash content with reasonable yield by adopting suitable beneficiation techniques. Besides, systematic R & D studies need to be carried out to focus on the cost-effective technology for the utilization of the LVC coking coals.