Ongoing Projects

S.No. Number Start Date End Date Project Leader Category Type Core Area Sub Area
1NML/IPSG/2018/2019/15125 ()2018-10-012019-09-30Chandra Veer SinghScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMechanical Behaviour of Materials

Title: Module 1: High Temperature Crack Growth of Cr-Mo Steels

Abstract: The growth of cracks strongly depends on the amount of the material in the vicinity of crack-tip coupled with the ductility of the material. Varied combinations of the two, give rise to distinct constraint conditions for a growing crack. The quantitative understanding of crack-growth under different constraint conditions is imperative to ensure the integrity of the components especially operating at higher temperatures. The experiments pertaining to study the effect of constraint wherein specimens of varying geometries and sizes would be explored. This work would provide insight into the relevant information required for the next generation of design codes and assessment procedures.

2NML/IPSG/2018/2019/418 ()2018-10-012019-09-30Soni Scholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringSurface Modification

Title: Development of hard and optically transparent nanocomposite coatings for wear and electronic applications. (Module II): To investigate the mechanical and strain rate sensitivity behaviour of AlSiN thin films with silicon content.

Abstract: Dynamic mechanical behaviour is of crucial importance for a component that are subjected to motion. Strain rate sensitivity is an important parameter that governs the dynamic mechanical properties. So it is quite necessary to investigate it for the Al-Si-N coating system. It is expected that silicon incorporation in Al-Si-N coating system will affect its mechanical and optical behaviour. The coating microstructure will have a significant influence on the hardness, modulus, H?E ratio, strain rate sensitivity factor and band gap energy, ultimately affecting the coating properties. An in depth analysis is required in order to have an understanding of mechanical and optical behaviour of Al-Si-N thin films as a function of silicon incorporation In addition to that strain rate sensitivity of Aluminium, Aluminium-silicon and Al-Si-N nanocomposite coatings will be investigated to study the dynamic mechanical behaviour of metal, metal-alloy and nanocomposite coatings.

3NML/IPSG/2018/2019/49628 ()2018-10-012019-09-30Premkumar MurugaiyanScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Development of High Induction amorphous based soft magnetic alloys-Module III

Abstract: Amorphous based Electrical steels are new class of soft magnetic materials with high electrical resistivity, low coercivity, low core loss and finds extensive applications as core material (transformers), stators motors, generators), Magneto static shielding, choke coils, actuators etc. The drawback of amorphous based material is its low magnetic induction (Bs) due to alloying additions for amorphous structure stabilization. The present investigation is aimed at alloy development, containing ferromagnetic Fe as base element in the range 80-85 atomic%. The present study involves in series of alloy modifications targeting optimal ratio of metalloid, grain growth inhibitor, nucleating elements and achieving magnetic induction greater than 1.5Tesla and good DC soft magnetic properties. Based on the theoretical results, Phosphorous and Boron will be the suitable metalloid for the high Fe system. Alloy optimization studies will be carried out to achieve optimal combination of high Ms, low Hc and 𝜆. The Alloy development also envisages partial crystallization and investigate the nanocrystalline effect on magnetization process. The obtained structural and soft magnetic results will be formulated in Random Anisotropy Model (RAM) to understand the compliance of developed alloys with existing model. The design and preparation of P containing Fe-rich alloys has been succesfully carried out in module-II. A total of 15 alloys in the form of melt-spun ribbons has been prepared. The module-III will be focused on controlled crystallization annealing and effect of magnetic field annealing on the soft magnetic properties of nano crystalline alloys.

4NML/IPSG/2018/2019/51471 ()2018-10-102019-10-09Shivendra SinhaScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Development of carbon based filler immobilized mixed matrix membrane for separation of Heavy Toxic Metals (Focus on Nuclear metals) from dilute effluent/leach solution-MODULE-1

Abstract: Presence of toxic and nuclear heavy metals in effluents of nuclear and metal industries poses a serious threat to the ecosystem. Thus, removal of these metals is of enormous importance vis-à-vis associated environmental risk. Moreover, this can also be looked as a potential feedstock for the recovery of these metals for meeting strategic needs. For instance, as of 2017, India generates around 6800 mW of nuclear energy, which is around 3% of total electricity consumption. India is set to expand its capacity with new six reactors with a combined capacity of 4.4 GWe. In this regard, fissile metals typically Uranium and Thorium have a major role to play. Thus, effluents containing nuclear and toxic metals provide a great opportunity in this regard. However, to recover these metals, it is essential to develop robust separation processes. Adsorption based process representing the class of such process, wherein mixed matrix membrane (MMM) based processes are of immense interest with regards to coupling adsorption by filler (typically functionalized nanomaterials) at high throughput with low energy requirement. This Ph.D. module will explore the development of carbon-based-filler immobilized mixed matrix membrane for separation of nuclear and toxic heavy metal from dilute effluent/leach solution. Carbon materials are chosen for this purpose because of high thermal, chemical, and radiation resistance than inorganic sorbents and inorganic exchange resins. In particular, this work will explore the preparation of carbon based filler, their preliminary efficacy towards adsorption of these metals followed by immobilization in compatible polymeric matrix membrane and subsequent performance evaluation using simulated dilute/leach solutions.

5NML/IPSG/2018/2019/53185 ()2018-10-012019-09-30SUNIL KUMARThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringMicrostructural Characterisation

Title: Molecular dynamic simulation of micro-structure & dislocation evolution during thermo-mechanical processing of pure Fe and Fe-C.

Abstract: It is important to precisely control the micro-structures of steel during thermal processing since they directly affects the properties of final products. In spite of considerable investigation from both fundamental and industrial viewpoints. It is still complex to control the evolution of various crystalline micro-structures during solidification because it govern by many aspects of physical phenomena such as energy minimization and diffusion of various alloying elements. Moreover, it is extremely difficult to observe these processes directly by an experimental approach. Therefore, computational studies will be used to investigate the effect of solidification process over various evolved micro-structures of pure Fe and Fe-C. We will carried out extensive molecular dynamics simulations to explore micro structures at various steel composition and cooling/heating rates. We believe that the results of this study will provide new understanding for the design and characterization of micro-structure of steel.

6NML/IPSG/2018/2019/59983 ()2018-10-012019-09-30Dr. Sabita GhoshScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMechanical Behaviour of Materials

Title: Use of Macro-scale finite element model of wire drawing to study Von Misses Stress and heat distribution and its use in the development of micro-structure in micro-scale model.

Abstract: Wire is often reduced to the desired diameter and properties improvement takes place by repeated drawing through progressively smaller dies. The process of wire drawing changes material's properties due to introduction of enormous strain during cold drawing. It is reported that during heavily plastic deformation of pearlitic steel, cementite gets dissolved in the adjacent ferrite matrix which affects the mechanical properties. Heavily drawn pearlitic wires have been investigated extensively over the years for its unusual strain hardening behavior as well as for the high strength with acceptable level of ductility. These wires are used to bear mechanical loads or for electricity and telecommunication signals, tire cord, springs, wire rope, suspension bridge cable etc. There are many theories and studies from various angels for Cementite dissolution during cold deformation of pearlitic steel has been reported. Nevertheless, no consensus has yet been reached concerning the true mechanism of carbon dissolution process and where the dissolved carbon is segregating. It is worth mentioning that ferrite, major phase in this case, is having very low solid solubility limit of carbon. In the national research scenarios, CSIR-NML has attempted to address cementite dissolution issue with the collaboration of TATA Steel, Jamshedpur by using HRTEM, X-ray diffraction and Mőssbauer Spectroscopy. This work remains with a scope to continue research work using mechanical properties variation with drawing and multi-scale simulation. Therefore present work aims to investigate Von Misses stress distribution and heat distribution during wire drawing process using finte element model in macro-scale simulation and its use in micro-scale model.

7NML/IPSG/2018/2019/62276 ()2018-04-162019-10-16Ganesh ChalavadiTechnology DevelopmentFast track(6 months)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Development of indigenous Air Stratifier for dry benfeciation

Abstract: Project Abstract Wet processing is commonly practiced for beneficiation of Coal. Dewatering of fines is an expensive operation. Rejects, in the form of slurry containing fines, cause environmental problems. With the implementation of dry beneficiation in physical beneficiation of Coal, environmental issues like slurry disposal, high cost involving downstream process like dewatering of products can be minimized. Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CBFC) in thermal power plants is a relatively new technology with the ability to achieve lower emission of pollutants. Besides, CBFC provides a greater flexibility in burning a wide range of coal and other fuels all this without compromising efficiency and with reduced pollution. CFBC uses crushed coal of 3 to 6 mm size. The existing dry beneficiation systems like air tables, AKAFLOW, FGX etc. are not applicable in this size range. So for dry beneficiation of coal in this size range an indigenous dry beneficiation unit is targeted for fabrication and experimentation. This indigenous dry beneficiation has the coal feed subjected to air pulsation there by causing density stratification and thereby causing physical beneficiation of coal.

8NML/IPSG/2018/2019/79377 ()2018-09-302019-10-31Minal ShahScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Study on Evolution of low temperature nanobainitic steel-Module 3

Abstract: With the increasing demand on energy saving, it is of necessity to develop high performance low cost steels having extraordinary high strength along with good toughness. The possibility of obtaining steels with nano size laths (20-50nm) of bainite by isothermal transformation treatment at low temperature is set forth. In this respect detail work has to be done to accelerate the kinetic of bainitic transformation by processing parameters and economical alloying elements. Role of Cu on mechanical properties of nanobainite steel has to be studied. Continuous cooled bainite has to studied to accelerate the kinetics. Modeling and Simulation of Isothermal and Continuous cooled bainite through Matlab has to be done.

9NML/IPSG/2018/2019/80297 ()2018-10-012019-09-30BIRAJ KUMAR SAHOOScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Development of Medium Mn, high Al low density high strength steel- MODULE 3

Abstract: There is a growing demand form the automotive sector for high strength light weight steel. High Mn(25-30%) and high Al(12-14%) TWIP or SIMPLEX steels having high strength and formability with lower density have been developed but owing to high Mn content, it adds hugely to the cost. It also poses manufacturing problems at industrial scale and thus not produced commercially in large scale. The density of automotive grade steel is around 7.8g/cc but with every 1% addition of Al there is a decrease in density of 1.3%. So, here lies a scope to develop a high strength steel with high Al in range of 8-12% but keeping the Mn content limited in the range of 7-12 %. With such steel, a density of 6.8-7.0 g/cc (i.e. ~10% reduction in density) can be achieved. The proposal aims to develop such steel by suitable alloy design and critically controlling the subsequent thermo-mechanical processing. The microstructure of the developed steel would be combination of ferrite, austenite with fine scale precipitation of K-carbide(FeMn)3AlC and/or B2 ordered phases(FeMnAl). The inter-critical annealing schedule after cold rolling plays a significant role for the development of the above microstructure. The precipitation of brittle intermetallics would be controlled to obtain very fine nano scale precipitation such that it would add to the strength, rather deteriorating the properties. In continuation of the module-2 in which the precipitation behavior of the intermetallics in the ferrite-austenite matrix with different heat treatment schedule was investigated, the proposal in MODULE-3 aims to assess the mechanical property of the alloy and investigate the deformation mechanism.

10NML/IPSG/2018/2019/92467 (OLP 0354)2018-10-012019-09-30Rashmi SinglaScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & EnvironmentMetallurgical/Mineral Waste Utilisation

Title: Development of inorganic-organic hybrid geopolymers (Module-I)

Abstract: Geopolymer based materials show excellent mechanical properties, thermal stability, freeze-thaw, acid and fire resistance, long term durability etc. Above all, the use of geopolymers can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions up to 80% in comparison to traditional cement based materials. However, their brittle mechanical behavior and consequently low fracture toughness limits their extensive applications as structural material. This problem can be overcome through the development of superior composite materials/hybrids tailored for the intended applications in a specific manner. Although some preliminary work has been carried out but most of the studies were just based on physical blending of the organic and the inorganic phases. The determining factor of such composites lies in the chemical compatibility between the two phases which has not been given due consideration. Thus, the outcome of the present work would be an optimized processing route and a suitable organic polymer for producing an inorganic-organic hybrid geopolymer having significantly enhanced compressive strength and fracture toughness with respect to the metakaolin-based inorganic geopolymer matrix.

11NML/IPSG/2018/2019/94425 ()2018-10-012019-09-30Mousumi DasScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationNon-destructive Evaluation

Title: Residual stress of ductile materials evaluate by instrumented indentation technique

Abstract: In literature many articles are available relating to instrumented indentation technique (IIT) by which it is possible to determine few mechanical properties of ductile materials. Majority of them were aimed to determine yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, work hardening (n), Strength coefficient (K), hardness etc. Only very few of them were addressed to evaluate fracture toughness of ductile materials especially for steel. Although, fracture toughness determination of brittle materials through indentation technique is well established. Further, determination of residual stress (RS) using indentation technique is scanty in literature. With this background, the determination of RS through IIT is a unique effort. Therefore in the present work an attempt has been made to introduce residual stress determination module in the existing portable automated ball indentation (PABI) system that had been developed at CSIR-NML, Jamshedpur and working satisfactorily at CSIR-NML, BARC-Mumbai, and NTPC-NETRA etc. Ball Indentation Technique (BIT) is a promising and uncomplicated alternative to conventional methods of residual stress measurement such as hole drilling, saw cutting, X-ray/neutron diffraction, and ultrasonic methods because of its various advantages of non-intricate specimen preparation, easy process, characterization of material properties on local scales and most important that it can be used on in-service structures. Mechanical properties and residual stress can be determined by analyzing the indentation load-depth curves obtained through multiple indentations on a single location of test coupon. Here, a WC ball (diameter ~1.5mm) is used to apply load on the test pieces (or on a structure/component) with a certain height and repetitive loading are responsible for developing multiple load deflection curves (P-δ). The P-δ curves are then converted into true stress true plastic strain curves (σp-εp) which are then used to get the few engineering properties of materials. Residual stress measurement technique is based on the key concepts that the deviatoric stress part of residual stress affects the change in indentation load-depth curve, and then by analyzing difference between residual stress-induced indentation curve and residual stress-free curve, quantitative residual stress of target region can be evaluated. Finite element method (FEM) has been widely used for simulation of BI tests on material in order to analyze its deformation response, influence of indenter geometry, friction and material elastic and plastic properties. FE simulation on BI technique can be used to study the stress states beneath the indenter. Therefore, the proposed work is aimed to introduce residual stress module into existing PABI system to make this system a complete tool for life assessment of in-use component. And validate PABI system with finite element simulation & conventional mechanical test.

12NML/IPSG/2018/2019/95645 ()2018-10-012019-09-30Swati PramikScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Rational Design of Solvent System: A Novel Approach for Recycling Metals from leach solution of Cathode Materials of Lithium-ion Batteries by solvent extraction. (Module I: Studies on physico-chemical behavior of amines (pri, sec, tert and quert amines) and organophosphoric compounds (Phosphoric, phosphonic and phosphinic acids) for the solvent extraction and separation of Li, Co, Ni and Mn.)

Abstract: There are several studies on the recycling of LIBs based on hydrometallurgical processes that involve leaching with concentrated acids followed by solvent extraction, ion exchange, or selective precipitation. However, the separation of Co(II), Ni(II) and Mn(II) by liquid-liquid extraction is still difficult. The versatility of the solvent extraction technology combined with precipitation processes can definitively reply to this goal provided that new selective and efficient solvent systems are designed. In this project, we will focus on developing new extraction solvents based on the use of a mixture of amines and organophosphorus acids for selective recovery of Co, Ni, Mn (extraction and stripping stages). The concept of this project for developing new extraction solvents relies on the use of a mixture of two extracting functions in the extraction solvent, which are active or non-active depending on the operating conditions. Cationic exchangers bear acidic function which are active at pH greater than the pKa value while amine extractants can extract metals provided that they exist as anionic species, i.e. at high sulfate or chloride concentration in the leach solution. Therefore, the concept introduced could be used to separate Co(II), Ni(II) and Mn(II) as they form both cationic and anionic species depending on the pH and chloride concentration of aqueous solution. Effect of structural changes of both amines and organophosphorus extractants towards extraction of Li, Co, Ni and Mn and physico-chemistry involved in the liquid-liquid extraction will be evaluated by correlating extraction and separation with pka, pkb and aggregation behavior of extractants in different diluents systems.

13NML/IPSG/2018/2019/97183 ()2018-10-012019-10-31SNEHASHISH TRIPATHYScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Study of wear and RCF mechanism in high carbon nano-pearlitic rail steel.

Abstract: The service life of rail steels is dictated by the wear and rolling contact fatigue resistance, which further depend upon the hardness and the toughness of the steel. Both of these properties being inversely dependent upon the interlamellar spacing of pearlite, the refining of pearlitic microstructure becomes an important aspect in the rail steel processing. The previous two modules thus aimed at attempting for nano –pearlitic microstructure in the hypereutectoid regime and evaluation of its mechanical and tribological properties. The promising results in terms of high hardness and excellent work hardening obtained in the previous modules lead to the further evaluation of the developed alloy for Rolling Contact Fatigue resistance. The synergistic effect of high hardness and good work hardening in the developed pearlitic grade is expected to enhance the RCF resistance of the developed grade. Therefore, in continuation with the previous module the present module would focus upon the Rolling Contact Fatigue evaluation of the designed alloy. This would also involve detailed microstructural characterization to detect the deformation behaviour and failure mechanisms in the material.

14NML/IPSG/2018/2019/9988 ()2018-10-012019-09-30Sheuli HoreThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMaterials Modeling

Title: Phase field modelling of microstructure evolution of steel during deformation processing (approved)

Abstract: The mechanical properties of a material such as strength and toughness are largely influenced by its microstructure. Therefore, the study of the evolution of microstructure in materials during manufacturing is of great technological importance. In the present investigation phase field models would be developed to simulate evolution of microstructure as a function of the processing conditions during deformation processing of steels. A challenge in the engineering-oriented phase field models is the construction of the free energy density at the interface between different phase constituents. This interface is classically considered as a geometric boundary without any internal structure and this would mean that the order parameters and solute concentration would be discontinuous at the interface. However, in this phase field modelling framework, the phase field order parameter and solute concentration have to be continuous functions throughout the whole system. The method is based on phenomenological equations of thermodynamics that are combined with free-energy functionals of Ginzburg-Landau type. In this method a diffuse interface description is employed where interfaces are represented implicitly by profiles of suitable order parameters instead of explicitly tracking moving boundaries as in the case of sharp interface model. The proposed model will attempt to characterize the evolution of microstructure under controlled operating conditions and the simulated microstructure will be validated with published experimental data. The model will be implemented using phase field simulation software (MICRESS) in conjunction with THERMOCALC interface.

15NML/IPSG/2019/2019/45131 ()2019-04-012019-09-30Sanjay PrasadTechnology DevelopmentFast track(6 months)Extractive MetallurgyPyrometallurgy

Title: Development of process on 2 kg scale for production of synthetic rutile from ilmenite

Abstract: Earlier investigations have been carried out to develop a process for the production of synthetic rutile containing more than 81% TiO2 (< 85%) from 46% TiO2 containing ilmenite in the last ipsg project. The project has been demonstrated to the ipsg committee. The investigation scheme consists of roast-reduction of ilmenite pellets with certain ingredients at a scale of 50g. The reduced product was subsequently leached in hot conc HCl to remove the unwanted components such as reduced iron and other associated impurities. The upgraded TiO2 (81-85%) was characterized which is a sell-able technical product. The objective of this investigation is to develop the process steps involved at a higher scale of 2 kg. To optimize the data and prepare detail process flow sheet.

16NML/IPSG/2019/2020/13886 ()2019-04-012020-03-31KRISHNA KUMARScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyPyrometallurgy

Title: Heat Transfer Modelling of condensation behaviour of metal vapours during distillation for quantitative analysis of condenser design (module III)

Abstract: During extraction and refining of metals using distillation techniques, the condensation behavior of metal vapors in the condenser is critical to achieving operational efficiency. In earlier works carried out in module I and II, a mathematical heat transfer model had been developed to predict the growth rate of a single liquid metal drop during dropwise condensation (DWC) of Mg metal vapours in Electrothermal process. The growth rate of Mg droplet during DWC had been numerically investigated using theoretical heat transfer models, developed for both homogeneous and heterogeneous DWC. Also, film condensation heat transfer modelling studies has been commenced with single phase laminar boundary layer concept and similarity solution method has been applied to solve the conservation equations in the condensing magnesium film. The proposed module III will be carried out to study the two phase metal vapour condensation phenomena and the associated heat transfer. The single phase film condensation heat transfer model will be extended to address the two-phase boundary layer flow problem in laminar film condensation of metal vapours, incorporating the effect of the shear forces at the liquid-vapour interface present due to induced motions of the metal (Mg, Zn) vapor. This complex two-phase flow problem and the associated heat transfer will be modelled using a coupled multi-physics approach. Non-condensable gases markedly reduce the condensation heat transfer rates. The effect of non-condensable gas on laminar film condensation of a liquid metal on an isothermal vertical surface with forced vapor flow will also be modeled keeping in view of its practical/industrial implications. Also, the experiments will be carried out to understand the separation behaviour based on condensation phenomena and associated heat transfer mechanisms. The proposed module will be consisting of a two phase condensation heat transfer modeling, the distillation equipment commissioning and installation followed by experiments under various operating conditions. This study will be useful in developing an understanding of the separation of metals based on their boiling and condensation behaviour, which may be useful to carry out distillation refining of metals.

17NML/IPSG/2019/2020/22477 ()2019-04-012020-03-31Ranjeet Kumar SinghScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Study of Particulate Flow in Centrifugal Force Field with Continuous Fluid Current (Module-III)

Abstract: Aim of the present study is to estimate the settling kinetics of suspensions of particles inside the centrifugal concentrator. In Module-II, a mathematical model was developed for estimation of settling velocity of particle for free settling condition. In the present study (Module-III), developed model is extended for hindered settling conditions. Sensitivity analysis of interaction forces will also be carried out. Developed model will be validated with experimental results, which was performed in Module-I. An attempt will also be made to fabricate the Falcon bowl,if favorable results will obtained.

18NML/IPSG/2019/2020/42298 ()2019-04-012020-03-31NIMAI HALDARTechnology DevelopmentFull tenure(1 year)OthersCSIR-800

Title: Energy efficient coal and oil based brass melting furnace for the artisans of West Bengal

Abstract: In the previous projects OLP-0331, OLP-0299 & OLP-0249 CSIR-NML has developed 10 kg & 50 kg coke-based brass melting furnace and transferred 2 number of technology to (i) Yugantar Bharati, Ranchi, Jharkhand and (ii) West Bengal Khadi & Village Industries Board, MSME & T Dept. Govt. of W.B. Subsequently, CSIR-NML also conducted several training cum demonstration program to the artisans and District Information centre officials. They have shown their interest for the know-how to the rest part of west Bengal. But they require coal based (locally available coal) and oil based brass melting furnace of capacity 500 kg and detailed project report for its implementation. They also require technological intervention of manufacturing of plate (Brass & BronzeThala) through rolling-forging routes and modification pre-heating furnace for rolling operation. In this project, it is proposed to develop coal based (100 kg capacity) and oil based (500 kg capacity) brass melting furnace for the artisans of West Bengal. It is also proposed to develop optimized process parameters for rolling of ingot to obtain circular plate.

19NML/IPSG/2019/2020/44107 ()2019-04-012020-03-31KOMAL SINGHScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringSurface Modification

Title: Development of high efficiency Tin Selenide based Thermoelectric and optically tunable coatings for alternative energy harvesting from different industrial applications (Module I).

Abstract: Thermoelectric and optically tunable coatings are very much required for alternative energy harvesting from different industrial applications. They are considered to be great resource for the alternative energy to tap many waste heat energies in different industrial processing right from metallurgical industry to electronic industry. Among different thermoelectric materials selenides have shown reasonably higher figure of merit (ZT). A higher figure of merit can be obtained in single crystal however they are very brittle and hence limits the device applications. The polycrystalline bulk sample show much lesser efficiency. Hence thin film is another alternative as the possibility of growth of epitaxial films are there which can lead to higher figure of merit. Tin selenide (SnSe) in bulk form have shown potential for a good thermoelectric and optical properties. The proposed research aims for the development of thermoelectric SnSe coating with high figure of merit and optically band gap tunable coatings. The investigation of the different mechanisms and structure property correlation of thermoelectric, thermal, electrical, structural and microstructure.

20NML/IPSG/2019/2020/71587 ()2019-04-162020-04-15Swapna DeyScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringCorrosion

Title: Hydrogen assisted degradation and fracture in pipeline steel (Module 2)

Abstract: Pipeline steels are widely used for transportation and distribution of oil and natural gas for long distances, and the hydrogen assisted degradation is one of the issues that can affect the structural integrity of these pipelines during long term operation. Pipeline steels can pick-up hydrogen during transport of sour crude oil and other petroleum products. The presence of H2S, CO2 and brine in crude oil not only enhance the corrosion rate but also lead to environmental fracture assisted by enhanced uptake of hydrogen (H) atoms in steels. Moreover, external environmental conditions cause free corroding processes, where hydrogen can be generated on the metal surface as a result of the cathodic counterpart of the anodic dissolution reaction. Furthermore, under service conditions when cathodic protection system is in place, hydrogen charging of pipeline steels is also possible. As result, there is concern of structural integrity of aging buried pipelines having cathodic protection. The proposed work will assess the effect of hydrogen absorption and permeation in pipeline steel by cathodic hydrogen charging in NACE solution and in near neutral pH (NS4) solution, which simulate real operating environment. Therefore, the aim of the study is to obtain realistic data for development of hydrogen embrittlement criteria of steels employed in oil/gas industries. Corrosion is one of the most predominant causes of pipeline failures in oil and gas production, which are related to the physical and chemical factors as well as environmental conditions. Therefore, the study of corrosion by electrochemical methods is also necessary. This work will investigate the corrosion behaviour of pipeline steel by different electrochemical methods (potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)). The proposed research work will extend to study the effects of hydrogen on fracture toughness of the material with the aim to provide an explanation for the hydrogen effect on fracture resistance.

21NML/IPSG/2019/2020/84292 ()2019-04-012020-03-31Mamta SharmaThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingPetrography & Process Mineralogy

Title: Study on effect of coal maceral on plastic behavior of different coking coal

Abstract: Quality of coke is vital for blast furnace operation. Based on physical, chemical rheological and petrographic properties of different coals, a proper selection of coal for coke making can be carried out. Petrographic studies of coal are playing an important role in characterizing the coking coal. Coal contains organic reactives and organic inerts and mineral matter. Reactive component undergoes plastic phase during heating above 350ºC, while the reactive component becomes plastic and attains its fluidity, its engulfs both the inerts and the mineral matter which are acts as bonding phase. For coke making, coals should produce adequate quantity of plastic phase, which is dependent on the reactive present in coal and its rank. High inert coals produce inadequate bonding and extra low inert coals suffer from vigorous devolatilisation resulting in excessive fissuring, both adversely affecting coke quality. The size of inerts should preferably be smaller than that of reactives so that the bonding is better. Our objective is to reveal the relationship between petrographical and coking properties of coal. Petrography, plasticity, dilation and swelling index were done for obtaining the relationship. It is evident that petrographic components have a major role in plasticity of coal and coking property as well.

22NML/IPSG/2019/2020/90386 ()2019-04-012020-03-31Mr. Gaurav Kumar BansalScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Development of Low Carbon Bainitic Steels (Module-II)

Abstract: The lower bainitic transformation in high and medium carbon steel has shown to achieve excellent strength-ductility combinations due to presence of nanobainite (20-40 nm). However, transformation kinetics has been found to be slow due to low temperatures involved. Subsequently, researches on low carbon steel (0.25-0.35 wt.%) with enhanced substitutional elements have resulted in coalescence of bainitic plates (120-150 nm) that lead to reduction in toughness of steel. Also, the reasons behind such coalescence are not fully understood. The possible options to further refine the bainite are modification in chemical composition of steel, altering the heat treatment schedule and controlling the prior austenite grain size through deformation of austenite. Also, the possibilities to achieve nano-bainite in steel containing carbon < 0.2 wt.% has not been given due consideration. However, the low carbon content allows broader application avenues. Therefore, the present work aims at designing a suitable alloy with carbon content < 0.2 wt.% and to study the bainite transformation through various processing routes so as to achieve highly refined bainite.

23NML/IPSG/2019/2020/94496 ()2019-04-152020-04-14Avanish Kumar ChandanScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of high entropy alloys at ambient and sub-ambient temperatures

Abstract: Abstract: Owing to the vast latitude offered by the High Entropy Alloys (HEAs) in terms of versatility in alloy design and microstructure, the research in HEAs is trending worldwide. Since their advent more than a decade ago, HEAs have been attracting tremendous research attention due to attractive properties over conventional engineering materials, such as ultra-high fracture toughness exceeding that of most metals and alloys, excellent strength comparable to that of structural ceramics and metallic glasses, superconductivity, adequate corrosion resistance etc. The equi-atomic, fully FCC structure, FeMnCrCoNi alloy is one of the most successful HEA with exceptional mechanical properties at cryo temperatures. However, the room temperature properties of the same is not attractive. The reason for lucrative mechanical properties of this alloy is the occurrence of nano-twins at cryo temperature but not at room temperature during deformation. Deformation behaviour of FCC system is principally governed by stacking fault energy (SFE). SFE on the other hand is dependent on composition of the system and service temperature. The present study aims to design new lean alloys based on the SFE of the resulting alloy. The effect of composition vis a vis SFE on the deformation behaviour of the alloy will be studied. Role of various SFE dependent deformation characteristics on the final mechanical properties at ambient and sub-ambient temperatures will be investigated.

24NML/IPSG/2019/2020/95507 ()2019-04-012020-03-31Md Murtuja HusainThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringSurface Modification

Title: Enhancement of wear, abrasion and corrosion resistance through friction stir processed ceramic particle reinforce magnesium AZ 31 alloy

Abstract: Friction-stir processing (FSP) is based on the basic principles of Friction Stir Welding (FSW), which is an emerging surface-engineering technology that can locally eliminate casting defects and refine microstructures. Thus the process improves strength, ductility, resistance to wear, corrosion resistance, fatigue limit and formability. FSP can be specifically applied to develop fine-grained microstructures throughout the thickness of metal surface, to impart super plasticity and ensure homogeneous distribution of reinforced particles. Metal matrix composites are modern engineering materials where overall microstructure of the material is modified by reinforcing secondary material in the form of powder particles into the base materials and the characteristics of core effect without any changes in compositions. Magnesium is the lightest of all light metal alloys and therefore is an excellent choice for aerospace and automobile industries applications when strength to weight ratio is important. FSP process offers many advantages over the other processing techniques like refinement of coarse grains in the matrix to fine grains, precipitate dissolution, porosity and defect elimination, breaking up of secondary phases and dendrites. An advanced solid state processing technique (FSP) is employed to counter the conventional technique problems as in which the processed zone does not melt and recast. Therefore friction stir processing of magnesium with reinforcement of particle is chosen in the present investigations.

25NML/IPSG/2019/2020/9909 ()2019-04-012020-03-31Sunati MohantyScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Study of dewatering behaviour of fine particles in hydrocyclone (Module-II)

Abstract: In mineral processing industries, most of the separation processes involve substantial quantities of water and the final concentrate/tailing has to be separated from pulp in which water-solid ratio is high. So dewatering of fine particles, separation of solid from liquid is an important aspect in mineral processing. But dewaering of fine particle under gravitational force is very sluggish. Keeping the advantage of centrifugal sedimentation, hydrocyclone is found to be the efficient solid-liquid separator. In this regard, hydrocyclone is found to be useful as a thickener. To understand the effect of inputs on dewatering response, a data driven neural network modeling of hydrocyclone is proposed.

26NML/IPSG/2019/2020/99781 ()2019-04-012020-03-31Ganesh ChalavadiThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Beneficiation of tribocharged particles on multiproperty seperator

Abstract: The existing multi property separator fabricated recently consists of inclined deck on which the feed particles flows.The fine particles gets tribo charged due to their attrition with screen and other particles.Due to high velocity air maintained on Multi property separator they leave the system. The present project aims at treating that tribo charged particles with a tribo charged separator. This will include extra recovery of valuable concentrate in feed.