Ongoing Projects

S.No. Number Start Date End Date Project Leader Category Type Core Area Sub Area
1NML/IPSG/2020/2021/14684 ()2020-04-012021-03-31Vaibhav GaurScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMicrostructural Characterisation

Title: Studies on stability and processing of Face centered cubic Titanium

Abstract: A micro-scale partial transformation of hcp structure titanium alloys to the fcc was reported by several researchers. FCC structure is expected to enhance mechanical properties of otherwise titanium with hcp/bcc structure. This was elucidated by limited modeling exercise due to the absence of bulk fcc Ti. Because of the above, we propose to explore a possible way of producing stable fcc titanium in bulk. This would enable in determining the mechanical behavior of titanium which is not reported in the literature in detail so far. In this study, an attempt will be made to establish the lattice transition temperature by using DSC and dilatometry techniques. After establishing the beta transus temperature, hcp titanium will be subjected to solution treatment followed by aging for various durations at different temperature intervals to maximize fcc titanium in the microstructure. The evolving microstructure will be further characterized for its structure and microstructure using advanced characterization techniques. A few to mention, the transformation of FCC titanium and its orientation relationship with HCP titanium. An attempt will be made to understand the effect of phase composition on the tensile deformation behavior mechanism. Apart from that, I would also investigate the conditions for the stability of FCC titanium during plastic deformation processes.

2NML/IPSG/2020/2021/18343 ()2020-10-162021-10-15Paritosh Dubey Thematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringSurface Modification

Title: Understanding the Phenomenon and Enhancement of Anti-icing Properties of HVOF deposited coating

Abstract: We are well familiar and fascinate with the snow, condensation, frost, freezing of liquids and another icing related phenomenon occurring ubiquitously in nature and multiple industrial applications. However, natural icing or ice accretion/adhesion is categorized as a potential hazard for aviation, maritime, transportation, natural energy harvesting and power transmission sectors. The ice accretion/adhesion deteriorates the efficiency, caused failure and economic losses, consume a large quantity of energy for ice removal and most significantly essential, safety risks. The mentioned sectors are demanding a robust, durable, nonhazardous, and economical solution to mitigate/remove/reduce the negative impacts of icing or delay/withstand with the icing related phenomenon. Among the vast available on anti-icing or de-icing solutions, the superhydrophobic coating solution attracts much attention to the scientific community in fulfilling the industry's requirements. The superhydrophobic coating is a passive anti-icing approach that may help in preventing or reducing snow accumulation, ice freezing, and ice adhesion on surfaces without interference from any external energy. Though superhydrophobic is of significant interest for researchers for real-world applications, its application is challenging to obtain satisfactory anti-icing performance, maintain long-term repellency and strong mechanical stability, and adopt environmental-friendly and commercializable methods. Therefore, in this present study, we proposed a fast and straight forward fabrication method to prepare a super-hydrophobic coating on steel substrates by high-velocity oxygen- fuel (HVOF) spraying method. The present study may help us to develop an understanding of the icing phenomenon and enhancement of anti-icing properties of HVOF deposited coating.

3NML/IPSG/2020/2021/18477 ()2020-06-012021-05-30KOMAL SINGHScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringSurface Modification

Title: Development of high efficiency Tin Selenide based Thermoelectric and optically tunable coatings for alternative energy harvesting from different industrial applications (Module II) : Effect of Doping on Tin selenide

Abstract: Thermoelectric and optically tunable coatings are very much required for alternative energy harvesting from different industrial applications. They are considered to be great resource for the alternative energy to tap many waste heat energies in different industrial processing right from metallurgical industry to electronic industry. Among different thermoelectric materials selenides have shown reasonably higher figure of merit (ZT). A higher figure of merit can be obtained in single crystal however they are very brittle and hence limits the device applications. The polycrystalline bulk sample show much lesser efficiency. Hence, doping can play an important role for development of thermoelectric material with high figure of merit. Doping of Tin selenide (SnSe) have shown good properties. The proposed research aims for the development of SnSe coating with high figure of merit and optically band gap tunable coatings by suitable doping. The investigation of the different mechanisms and structure property correlation of thermoelectric, thermal, electrical, structural and microstructure.

4NML/IPSG/2020/2021/23956 ()2020-06-012021-05-30Shubhada KarR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Precipitation hardened compositionally complex alloys

Abstract: In recent years, one of the main focus areas of the research is to design and process materials having excellent strength-ductility synergy for various special applications in automotive and aerospace sectors. The use of multi-phase compositionally complex alloys (CCAs) results in deterioration of mechanical properties due to the formation of various hard intermetallic phases. Though, these intermetallics increase the strength of the materials, however, they reduce ductility. This strength-ductility trade-off can be overcome by introducing precipitation hardening via ordered coherent precipitates in a single phase face centred cubic structure. Therefore, in the present proposal, it is envisaged to design a single phase CCA that can be precipitation hardened through suitably designing thermo-mechanical processing and microstructure control to obtain excellent combination of strength and ductility. The idea is to use an appropriate combination of alloying elements through novel alloy design techniques in order to maintain the single phase containing desired amount of favorable precipitates. This will be followed by suitably designed thermo-mechanical process to achieve the uniform distribution of fine precipitates with desired morphology.

5NML/IPSG/2020/2021/25309 ()2020-10-012021-09-30Swati PramikScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Rational Design of Solvent System: A Novel Approach for Recycling Metals from leach solution of Cathode Materials of Lithium-ion Batteries by solvent extraction. (Module-III Studies on the physico-chemical behavior of mixture of amine (pri, sec, ter and quart amines) and organophosphoric compounds (Phosphoric, phosphonic and phosphinic acids) for the solvent extraction and separation of Li, Co, Ni and Mn.)

Abstract: The state-of-the-art shows the main challenges involved in the LiBs recycling and the importance of the development of new extracting agents for the selective recovery of Co, Ni, Mn and Li. The development of versatile processes capable to treat a large variety of LiBs technology utilizing Co, Ni, Mn and Li elements is one of these challenges. It could be reached by developing new selective and efficient extractants and implementing optimised and adapted flowsheets in order to minimize effluent generation and reactive consumption. For this goal, amine and organophosphorus acids appear as the best choice of extractants .The concept of this project for developing new extraction solvents relies on the use of a mixture of two extracting functions in the extraction solvent, which are active or non-active depending on the operating conditions. Cationic exchangers bear acidic function which are active at pH greater than the pKa value while amine extractants can extract metals provided that they exist as anionic species, i.e. at high sulfate or chloride concentration in the leach solution. Therefore, the concept introduced could be used to separate Co(II), Ni(II) and Mn(II) as they form both cationic and anionic species depending on the pH and chloride concentration of aqueous solution. Effect of structural changes of both amines and organophosphorus extractants towards extraction of Li, Co, Ni and Mn and physico-chemistry involved in the liquid-liquid extraction will be evaluated by correlating extraction and separation with pka, pkb and aggregation behavior of extractants in diferent diluents systems.

6NML/IPSG/2020/2021/32002 ()2020-04-012021-03-31Gaurav Kumar BansalScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Development of Low Carbon Bainitic Steels (Module-III)

Abstract: The lower bainitic transformation in high and medium carbon steel has shown to achieve excellent strength-ductility combinations due to presence of nanobainite (20-40 nm). However, transformation kinetics has been found to be slow due to low temperatures involved. Subsequently, researches on low carbon steel (0.25-0.35 wt.%) with enhanced substitutional elements have resulted in coalescence of bainitic plates (120-150 nm) that lead to reduction in toughness of steel. Also, the reasons behind such coalescence are not fully understood. The possible options to further refine the bainite are modification in chemical composition of steel, altering the heat treatment schedule and controlling the prior austenite grain size through deformation of austenite. Also, the possibilities to achieve nano-bainite in steel containing carbon < 0.2 wt.% has not been given due consideration. However, the low carbon content allows broader application avenues. Therefore, the present work aims at designing a suitable alloy with carbon content < 0.2 wt.% and to study the bainite transformation through various processing routes so as to achieve highly refined bainite.

7NML/IPSG/2020/2021/35761 ()2020-10-162021-10-15Gorja Sudhakar RaoThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringCorrosion


Abstract: Austenitic stainless steels (ASSs) are known for good resistance to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) compared to other structural alloys, because of low diffusivity and high solubility of H in austenite structure of steels. Therefore ASSs are considered as primary choice material for hydrogen storage and transportation applications in the hydrogen based energy automobile systems; where HE is very important and probable failure mechanism. Hydrogen can be stored either as gas or liquid state. Storage of gas form requires storage tanks operating at very high pressure of about 300-700 bar (compressed H2 gas), while storage of liquid/gas hydrogen (cryo-compressed H2) requires storage tanks operated at cryogenic temperature (-253 °C) and pressure about 250-350 bar for economic reasons. To operate at such a high pressures and low temperatures requires high strength materials. However, ASSs have low yield strength (YS) ranging from (216-230MPa). The YS and tensile strength of ASSs is generally improved by cold work to accommodate high compressed H. The metastable ASSs strength is improved by martenstic transformation and strain hardening by dislocations. But ASSs suffer HE in the cold worked state. There have been several investigations on the hydrogen embrittlement of metastable and stabilized austenitic stainless steels, focused on the effects of cold worked strain induced martensite, sensitization, alloying elements. Mostly the studies were carried out after hydrogen pre-charging by gas or electrochemical method of the cold worked/pre-strained steel at single temperature with limited degree of cold work percent (less than 30%) and compared with the annealed steel by using SSRT or constant load methods. Very limited studies are available on the cold work over wide temperature range and degree of cold work percent to understand the effect of deformation induced martensite (DIM) and microstructural features on HE. Further the higher embrittlement in the cold worked state was mainly attributed to formation of DIM after cold work, which enabled more H entry in to the steel and consequently results higher embrittlement. There are also reports saying positive effect of pre-strain in metastable ASSs. It is important to mention that cold work not only induce martensitic transformation but also significantly increases dislocations structures density. Dislocations are also one of the main path for hydrogen diffusion in the materials in addition to the grain boundaries, and the effect of the increased dislocation density on hydrogen permeation/entry and HE has been ignored. Therefore in the present proposed project it is planned to investigate the cold and warm rolling over wide range of temperatures (-193 C to 150C/200 C) with different degree of cold work percent in metastable ASSs with the aim of increase the strength and subsequently to analyze influence of the DIM formation and morphology, and dislocation density on H permeation and embrittlement of metastable austenitic steel. SEM, TEM and XRD characterization methods used to analyze the morphology of DIM, dislocation density and deformation behavior.

8NML/IPSG/2020/2021/35802 ()2020-10-162021-10-15Chandra Veer SinghThematic ResearchExpress Track(3 Months)Materials EngineeringMechanical Behaviour of Materials

Title: Module 3: High Temperature Crack Growth of Cr-Mo Steels

Abstract: The growth of cracks strongly depends on the amount of the material in the vicinity of crack-tip coupled with the ductility of the material. Varied combinations of the two, give rise to distinct constraint conditions for a growing crack. The quantitative understanding of crack-growth under di􀃠erent constraint conditions is imperative to ensure the integrity of the components especially operating at higher temperatures. The experiments pertaining to study the e􀃠ect of constraint wherein specimens of varying geometries and sizes would be explored. This work would provide insight into the relevant information required for the next generation of design codes and assessment procedures

9NML/IPSG/2020/2021/36672 ()2020-10-162021-10-15Bhupendra KumhareScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyProcess Modeling

Title: Behaviour of Mold Flux during Continuous Casting of Light weight Steels

Abstract: Mold flux powders used in continuous casting process have some specific role to improve the efficacy. Some of the primary functions of mold fluxes are to i) provide ample lubrication between solidifying shell and mold walls, ii) prevent atmospheric oxidation of molten steel, iii) facilitate optimum horizontal heat flux, iv) and act as a pool for absorption of NMIs. During continuous casting of high Al steels (>0.5% Al) using CaO-SiO2 based mold powders, the reduction of molten oxides (especially SiO2) by Al content in steel at the slag-metal interface, has proven to be source of major process irregularities. To overcome the chemical instability of conventional CaO-SiO2 based mold powders, CaO-Al2O3 based mold powders are identified as an alternate for high Al steels. However, it is inferred from many studies and plant reports, CaO-Al2O3 based mold fluxes still suffer from lack of continuous lubrication due to irregular crystallization behaviour. In addition to the above practice, direct feeding of molten mould flux has also been identified to entertain smooth casting of high Al steels. Therefore, a detailed investigation to understand the chemical stability of mold fluxes during continuous casting of high Al steels is essential. The above objective also necessitates assessment of molten mold flux behaviour at the slag-metal interface using physical model techniques, which has been proposed in the present module. The understanding developed from the physical model experiments will be employed to mold flux design and high temperature experimental campaign to assess the chemical stability of mold fluxes for high Al steel

10NML/IPSG/2020/2021/38118 ()2020-10-162021-10-15Avanish Kumar ChandanThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Discerning the individual and synergistic effect of carbide inhibitors on austenite retention and stability in medium manganese advanced high strength steels

Abstract: Over the last decade, research in the field of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) for automotive applications has undergone a paradigm shift from low manganese (Mn) transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) aided and high Mn twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels to medium Mn (3-10 wt.% Mn) TRIP and/or TWIP aided steels. This is primarily due to the unique combination of strength and ductility achieved in medium Mn steels. These steels are annealed in the intercritical region (between Ae1 and Ae3 temperatures) for the enrichment of austenite phases with carbon and Mn and therefore, achieving the austenite retention at room temperature. However, it has been shown in many studies that these steels are very much prone to carbide precipitation (M3C, M23C6, etc.) in the intercritical region. These carbides consume a significant amount of carbon and Mn, leading to a deficiency of these elements in the austenite phase. As a result, this austenite transforms to martensite/bainite during cooling to room temperature from the intercritical region, which has detrimental effects on the ductility and impact toughness. The available literature shows that these carbides can be eliminated to certain extent by alloying with Si and Al. However, a higher addition of these elements has detrimental effects, such as rolled in scale defect, issues in hot-dip galvanizing, smelting difficulties, etc. In this context, there are many studies available on intercritical annealing of medium Mn steels, however, the amount of Al and Si have been chosen arbitrarily. One of the reason for this is the inability of well-known software such as ThermoCalc, Dictra, JMatPro, etc. to provide any information on effects of these elements on carbide precipitation tendency. Therefore, it is of significant importance to perform a systematic experimental study to decipher the role of these elements on carbide inhibition and therefore, the change in the amount and characteristics of austenite phase, and the ensuing mechanical properties. Based on the above, the present work aims to investigate the individual and synergistic effect Si and Al on austenite phase stabilization in a low carbon medium Mn steel. A correlation will be established between the Al and/or Si content, retained austenite phase content, its stability and the mechanical properties (tensile, charpy impact toughness), which will definitely pave the way for researchers to select these elements in an optimum amount.

11NML/IPSG/2020/2021/4178 ()2020-10-162021-10-15Rashmi SinglaScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & EnvironmentMetallurgical/Mineral Waste Utilisation

Title: Study of structure-property correlations of inorganic - organic hybrid geopolymers

Abstract: Geopolymer based materials show excellent mechanical properties, thermal stability, freeze-thaw, acid and fire resistance, long term durability etc. Above all, the use of geopolymers can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions up to 80% in comparison to traditional cement based materials. However, their brittle mechanical behavior and consequently low fracture toughness limits their extensive applications as structural material. This problem can be overcome through the development of superior composite materials/hybrids tailored for the intended applications in a specific manner. In this regard, hybrids through simple mixing route and through mechanical activation route have been synthesized in the previous modules. In continuation with this, module-III will explore the structure-property correlation of the prepared hybrid geopolymers. For this, detailed characterisation studies would be done.

12NML/IPSG/2020/2021/43128 ()2020-10-162021-10-15Shivendra SinhaScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Development of Functionalized MOF and its composites for the adsorption of light rare earths from effluent/dilute leach solution: Dynamic filtration studies with mass transfer modelling

Abstract: With ever-growing technological advancement, it is realized that the Rare Earth Elements (REE’s) are omnipresent. They are extensively used in cell phone, televisions, led lights bulbs, batteries, magnets, wind turbines and so forth; making it a critically useful element in recent scenario. However, considering its limited sources coupled with huge demand, it is thus imperative to recover these elements from alternative sources (like effluents, geothermal brine, dilute leach solution of lean grade resources) to augment the feedstock to meet the current needs. Thus, development of efficient process for separation of REEs is of great significance. In this regard, this Ph.D. module will explore the development of functionalized MOF and its composites for adsorptive separation of REEs from simulated solution/effluents. Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are new generation, highly porous and chemically stable nano-material with flexibility of functionalization and have been proven for adsorptive separation of heavy metals from effluents/dilutes solutions. However, their potential is untapped in the separation of rare earth elements along with its limited usage in dynamic column filtration owing to its size that restricts the bed permeability. Thus, this study attempts to identify and functionalized MOF to render it suitable for REE extraction along with compositing with compatible polymeric material to porous prepare beads desirable for dynamic column filtration.

13NML/IPSG/2020/2021/59959 ()2020-06-012021-05-31Ibrahim Momoh Bello OmiogbemiScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringMaterials Joining

Title: Effect of Electrode Composition on the Mechanical and Corrosion Behaviour of Welded Duplex Stainless Steel in Corrosive Environments.

Abstract: There has been a great need to optimise electrode flux coating formulation that is more suitable for duplex stainless steels (DSS) and other related stainless steels welding without impairing the ferrite-austenite phases and with excellent mechanical and corrosion resistant properties, suitable for applications in oil and gas industry. The present study is geared towards investigating the effect of electrode composition on the mechanical and corrosion behaviour of welded duplex stainless steel (DSS) in corrosive environments. Preliminary studies will be done on effect of different flux ingredients on final composition of alloying elements (chromium, nickel and molybdenum) in weld metal for DSS electrode development. Extreme vertices design will be adopted in flux formulation due to its flexibility of correlating flux ingredients proportions on their responses. The formulated flux is targeted to possess basicity index of ≥ 1.2, which will enhance the reduction of oxygen content in the electrode, hence its inclusion in the weldment. Thermal stability of the formulated flux will be done using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Few types of electrodes will be developed by designing the flux and will be evaluated for qualifications like mechanical properties and corrosion properties as per applicable codes. A novel optimised formulation for DSS electrode capable of seamlessly remedy the corrosion of DSS structures at welded joint will be developed. The mechanical, microstructural and corrosion resistant properties will be determined to validate the integrity of weldment and to establish its applicability and performance in service environments

14NML/IPSG/2020/2021/69355 (OLP 0374)2020-06-012021-05-31Kumari RubyThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Characterization of microbubbles and its subsequent application in fine particle separation

Abstract: Depletion of high-grade resources has necessitated the use of low-grade fines,which contain good amount of mineral values and also liberate in finer sizes. Frothflotation, a physico- chemical surface-based process, is the most established solution, both technologically and economically, compared to other alternatives forfines beneficiation (for oxide and sulphide mineral particles). For a successful and effective flotation performance, an understanding of the mineral surface and proper selection of the surfactant/reagentregimes along with their molecular chemistry and their specific adsorption mechanism are mandated. Objective of the present work is to understand the complexity of the flotation processalong with adsorption and interaction mechanism of different surfactants in accordance to mineral surface characteristics and their dependency on manymicroevents.

15NML/IPSG/2020/2021/73739 ()2020-10-162021-09-15Rajanikant ChoudhariScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Extraction and recovery of copper from lean grade chalcopyrite

Abstract: Copper is an important element to use for electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, anticorrosion purpose. Presently, the availability of the high grade copper ore is bound to decline. For copper, approximately 20% of total primarily extracted from hydrometallurgy route. The process improvement and the kinetic study of the copper leaching from low grade chalcopyrite ore in different acid media will be present in this paper. The effect of major leaching parameters of copper leaching efficiencies will be determined. The objective of this study will be developed process flow sheet for the recovery of copper from lean grade chalcopyrite followed by hydrometallurgy route. The effect of several parameters including agitation, temperature, acid concentration and particle size of the copper leaching efficiency will be evaluated. In addition, the leaching kinetics will be examined according to heterogeneous reaction models and the best fitted equation to the experimental data will be determined.

16NML/IPSG/2020/2021/75627 ()2020-06-012021-05-30Avanish Kumar ChandanScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of high entropy alloys at ambient and sub-ambient temperatures (Module 3)

Abstract: Owing to the vast latitude offered by the High Entropy Alloys (HEAs) in terms of versatility in alloy design and microstructure, the research in HEAs is trending worldwide. Since their advent more than a decade ago, HEAs have been attracting tremendous research attention due to attractive properties over conventional engineering materials, such as ultra-high fracture toughness exceeding that of most metals and alloys, excellent strength comparable to that of structural ceramics and metallic glasses, superconductivity, adequate corrosion resistance etc. The equi-atomic, fully FCC structure, FeMnCrCoNi alloy is one of the most successful HEA with exceptional mechanical properties at cryo temperatures. However, the room temperature properties of the same is not attractive. The reason for lucrative mechanical properties of this alloy is the occurrence of nano-twins at cryo temperature but not at room temperature during deformation. Deformation behaviour of FCC system is principally governed by stacking fault energy (SFE). SFE, on the other hand, is dependent on composition of the system and service temperature. The present study aims to design new lean alloys based on the SFE of the resulting alloy. The effect of composition vis a vis SFE on the deformation behaviour of the alloy will be studied. Role of various SFE dependent deformation characteristics on the final mechanical properties at ambient and sub-ambient temperatures will be investigated.

17NML/IPSG/2020/2021/83982 ()2020-10-162021-10-15Ajita KumariThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Neural network-based sensitivity analysis and performance optimization of carbon recovery from Blast furnace and Corex plant sludge of JSW Steel plant using froth flotation - A step towards Waste-to-Wealth management

Abstract: Sustainable development can only be achieved by maintaining human development goals, ecological development and preservence of natural resources for current as well as future generations simultaneously. Mining and mineral-based industries have a huge role to play in sustainability. Processing plant tailings and sludge from steel plants contain solids in water which can contaminate soil and water supplies resulting in environmental damage. However, these solids suspended in water (sludge) still contain valuable minerals which can be recovered for primary and secondary usage, as a step towards Waste-to-Wealth management. Carbon in the sludge from Blast furnaces and Corex plants of M/s JSW Steel plant was reported to be present in the range of 18%-25%. The objective of intended investigation is to recover maximum carbon at a minimum grade of 60% carbon by flotation. Flotation is a selective process of separating hydrophobic particles from hydrophilic ones by maintaining the optimum physical and chemical environment. As per the new norms and guidelines, by-products of industrial plants should contain less than specified levels of chemicals. In the proposed study, biocollectors which are environmental friendly will be used for carbon recovery. Over the years, research has been carried out on process optimization of froth flotation by adopting different methods. However, studies on neural network-based sensitivity analysis and related process optimization are very limited. Important process parameters such as pulp density, flotation reagent dosage, pH etc. would be varied according to a statistically designed experimental methodology. An empirical model will be developed to assess the process responses and the overall efficiency. The process will then be modelled using artificial neural network to fit the random data in a continuous pattern. Sensitivity analysis will organize the input variables in the order of significant effectiveness on the individual responses.

18NML/IPSG/2020/2021/91783 ()2020-06-012021-05-31MOHANA RAO ANDAVARAPUScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Characterization, Beneficiation and Coke Formation Studies on Low Volatile Coking Coal for Metallurgical Utility (Module-I)

Abstract: Coking coal is an essential raw material in the metallurgical industry, where it is used primarily as an energy source and also as a reducing agent in the blast furnace. According to the World Coal Association, 70% of the worlds steel production depends on coal and 41% of the world's electricity generation is through coal. Currently, domestic steelmakers meet 70% of their coking coal requirement through imports. The good quality coking coals of the upper seams are fast depleting leaving behind the inferior quality lower seam coal. The lower seam coals presently being mined are mostly Low Volatile Coking (LVC) coal. These coals are presently being mined both in Jharia and Bokaro Coalfields and the available resources are more than 50% of the overall coking coal reserves in India. LVC coals are characterized by high raw coal ash content and difficult-to-wash as these coals have a high percentage of near gravity materials. The liberation characteristics of this type of coal are very poor due to the highly inter-grown nature of the coal. Therefore, they are being diverted for non-metallurgical uses. The worldwide coking coal beneficiation practice is carried out by a combination of gravity and flotation techniques for producing clean coking coal. There is a loss of significant valuable coal in the tailings due to the interlocking of coal with gangues, poor technology, and process bottlenecks. In many cases the finely ground feed does not respond well to process involving simple gravitational force for recovering the valuable minerals, hence processing under higher G-force may be worth investigating. Centrifugal separators use enhanced gravitational force for processing ultrafine particles. Limited work has been done on Low volatile coking coal fines (Sen et al, 1994; Chatterjee and Baranwal, 2007; Gouricharan et al, 2009; S.Bhattacharya, 2016). However, centrifugal separators for these coals have not been attempted yet. Hence it is very much necessary to collect scarce commodities to increase the clean coal productivity by adopting a centrifugal separation route. An attempt will be made to see the technical feasibility of washing LVC coals at 13% ash content with reasonable yield by adopting suitable beneficiation techniques. Besides, systematic R & D studies need to be carried out to focus on the cost-effective technology for the utilization of the LVC coking coals.