Ongoing Projects

S.No. Number Start Date End Date Project Leader Category Type Core Area Sub Area
1NML/IPSG/2017/2018/7819 (OLP 0305)2017-09-302018-10-31Minal ShahThematic ResearchExpress Track(3 Months)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Study on Evolution of low temperature nanobainitic steel-Module 2

Abstract: With the increasing demand on energy saving, it is of necessity to develop high performance low cost steels having extraordinary high strength along with good toughness. The possibility of obtaining steels with nano size laths (20-50nm) of bainite by isothermal transformation treatment at low temperature is set forth. In this respect detail work has to be done to accelerate the kinetic of bainitic transformation by processing parameters and economical alloying elements. Role of Cu has to be studied on kinetics and Bs temperature on nanobainitic transformation. Continuous cooled bainite has to studied to accelerate the kinetics. Modeling and Simulation of Isothermal and Continuous cooled bainite through Matlab has to be done.

2NML/IPSG/2018/2018/94784 (OLP 0338)2018-05-012018-11-30AbhilashTechnology DevelopmentFast track(6 months)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Development of process for extraction and separation of REEs from FCC catalysts

Abstract: Spent FCC catalysts from petrochemical industries doesn't find any applications except for being sold out to recyclers and the merit of La and Ce present is often neglected. Keeping in view, a feasibility study was done to extract these REEs from spent FCCs obtained from Indian PSU oil companies in India. Keeping in view of good degree of separation, a technological package is proposed to be developed to extract and separate rare earth elements from the present samples of FCCs at kg scale, and testing the residue for suitability towards geopolymer applications.

3NML/IPSG/2018/2019/10126 (OLP 0344)2018-04-012019-03-31susanta kumar nathThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & EnvironmentMetallurgical/Mineral Waste Utilisation

Title: Synthesis of dry geopolymer cement using industrial byproducts and waste

Abstract: Geopolymer cement has been successfully developed by mixing of alumino-silicate powder with liquid alkali solution. Although some difficulties are there with alkali solution for large scale production. These activator are corrosive and health hazardous, and would be difficult to transport and to use for bulk production. Therefore dry geopolymer has been tried to develop. Dry geopolymer basically a mix of precursor powder and dry activator which acts as cement when water is added. However there are some issues with dry geopolymer and very little information available in literatures. Strength development of dry geopolymer is very slow and does not reaches to desirable level, heat of hydration is higher than liquid activator, and self setting characteristics of dry powder when contact with water. This work aims to produce a dry geopolymer powder mix which is as reactive as cement. To improve the reactivity different approaches such as increase in glass content, mechanical activation of dry powder, microwave heating etc. will be attempted. Organic polymer will be added to improve the geopolymer cement properties. Process parameters such as alkali amount, water to binder ratio will be optimized to enhance the reactivity.

4NML/IPSG/2018/2019/1069 (OLP 0341)2018-04-162019-04-15 K GOPALA KRISHNAThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Effect of build direction on properties of metallic components produced by direct digital manufacturing (3D metal printing) technique

Abstract: Direct digital manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is an additive manufacturing process, where the engineering components are produced directly from their digital designs. The process mainly involves, building the component, layer by layer from their metal/alloy powders, using either selective laser melting (SLM) or direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) techniques. Since the process involves, building the components, layer by layer, there exists a need to understand effect of process parameters such as build direction, built speed etc., on resultant properties of the components, and also to identify anisotropy if any. The present study is aimed at printing 3 dimensional monolithic block and preparing standard fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) test specimens using direct digital manufacturing from stainless steel (AISI 304/316) powders and to correlate the resultant properties with the build direction.

5NML/IPSG/2018/2019/16135 ()2018-04-012019-03-31Ranjeet Kumar SinghScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Study of Particulate Flow in Centrifugal Force Field with Continuous Fluid Current (Module-II)

Abstract: Separation of particles in centrifugal concentrator is depend upon the differential settling velocity of particles. Settling velocity of particle is depend upon fluid profile inside the concentrator, operation la parameter, physical properties of particles such as size, shape, density and design parameter of concentrator. In order to understand the settling kinetics of particles inside the centrifugal concentrator, A mathematical model will be developed through first principle of force balance equation. Motion of particles will be modeled as a discrete phase, described by the Newton’s laws of motion on an individual particle scale, and the flow of fluid (liquid) is treated as a continuum phase, described by the analytical solution of Navier-Stokes equations. Effect of design parameter, operation parameter and physical properties of particle on settling performance will be estimated through the developed mathematical model.

6NML/IPSG/2018/2019/2010 ()2018-04-012019-03-31Kalicharan HembromThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Design and optimization study of flotation process using Modeling and Simulation analysis

Abstract: Flotation is a process of separation of valuable minerals from waste gangue minerals based on the difference in the surface properties of the minerals. Describing the flotation process on the basis of fundamental relationship is extremely difficult. A wide range of mathematical models are available for both conventional and column flotation and many of them are based on the first order kinetics. As a first requirement, the model must be able to describe the recovery response of the various component of the feed into the concentrate and tailings of the flotation cell. The recovery of a floatable component can be calculated using the eqn. R=Kτ/(1+Kτ) (where K = flotation rate constant, τ = residence time). Since flotation is a multivariate process due to which it is extremely difficult to estimate the value of the flotation rate constant accurately. Typically flotation rate constant is a function of particle characteristics (ore mineralogy, particle liberation and particle size, reagent dosage, pulp chemistry, etc) and machine characteristics (air flowrate, impeller design, cell design, impeller speed, etc). Objective of the present work is to determine the particle characteristics in terms of single index (ore floatability) and machine characteristics in terms of bubble size, superficial gas velocity and gas holdup. The above estimated parameters would be used in developing a suitable model for design and optimization purpose.

7NML/IPSG/2018/2019/27574 ()2018-04-022019-04-02Aarti KumariScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Scientific Investigation on Hydro and Electro-chemical dissolution of scrap magnets of wind turbines for the recovery of rare earth metals and other valuable products (Module III: Electrochemical effect on selective dissolution of rare earths from scrap magnet of wind turbines)

Abstract: The application of NdFeB magnets is increasing continuously for the miniaturization of product and development of clean energy. Due to increasing demand of rare earths, spent NdFeB magnet has emerged as potential secondary resource of rare earths comprised of Neodymium, Praseodymium, Dysprosium etc. In Module 1, spent NdFeB magnet received from a wind turbine industry was characterized and analyzed. Leaching studies were carried for selective dissolution of rare earths from spent NdFeB magnet. At the optimized leaching condition after roasting, 98% recovery of rare earths were obtained. In Module II, separation studies of rare earths were carried out from the leach liquor of spent NdFeB magnet using solvent extraction process. In Module III, it is planned to study the feasibility of selective leaching of rare earths from spent magnet by electrochemical dissolution. Theoretically, difference in the reduction potential of rare earth element i.e REE (Nd) and non-REE (Fe) is large, ~ 1.8 V which drives the idea for selective electrochemical dissolution of rare earth metal from scrap magnet. Electrochemical dissolution can offer the additional advantage of process control with potential (E) and current density in addition to the pH, which can play a major role for selective recovery. Apart from that expensive pre-treatment steps such as demagnetization or roasting can be avoided by direct electrochemical dissolution of scrap. Therefore, the aim of this module is to investigate the various aspect of electrochemical dissolution process of NdFeB magnet which has not been explored yet.

8NML/IPSG/2018/2019/38153 ()2018-04-012019-03-31KRISHNA KUMARScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyProcess Modeling

Title: Heat transfer modelling of condensation behavior of metal (Mg) vapors during distillation for quantitative analysis of condenser design (module II)

Abstract: During distillation the condensation behavior of metal vapors is of paramount importance to achieve desired purity, yield and production efficiency, for which an optimum design of condenser is critically required. In module I, along with some ideal cases of filmwise condensation, the dropwise condensation has been attempted in various forms. Industrially, film condensation is most economical and suitable mode of condensation. Module-II has been proposed to carry out heat and mass transfer modelling of film condensation of a stationary, pure, saturated metal (Mg, Zn, Na) vapor on an isothermal vertical condenser surface, incorporating various realistic issues of condensation phenomena. The formulation of the problem will be in conjunction with classical Nusselt theory, initially, considering only significant thermal resistances. Further, the single phase model will be extended to address the two-phase boundary layer flow problem in laminar film condensation of metal vapours, incorporating the effect of the shear forces at the liquid-vapour interface present due to induced motions of the metal (Mg, Zn) vapor. This complex two-phase flow problem and the associated heat transfer will be modelled using a coupled multi-physics approach. Non-condensable gases markedly reduce the condensation heat transfer rates. The effect of non-condensable gas on laminar film condensation of a liquid metal on an isothermal vertical surface with forced vapor flow will also be modeled keeping in view of its practical/industrial implications. Experimental investigation will be carried out to extensively characterize the condensation behavior of the metal vapour for model validation and attempts will be made to develop a heat transfer correlation using similarity analysis and dimensional methods.

9NML/IPSG/2018/2019/52940 ()2018-04-012019-03-31Ashok KScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyProcess Modeling

Title: Control and analysis of non-metallic inclusion in electrical steel - module 4

Abstract: Residual non-metallic inclusions present in liquid steel are one of the causes of process interruptions during transfer of liquid steel, solidification, post processing of solidified steel. Presence of residual non-metallic inclusions also ultimately affects the end properties of the steel. Specific to electrical steel, presence of non-metallic inclusions mostly annoys its performance during magnetization and demagnetization process via, creating barkhaunsen noise. The control of amount, size, morphology and chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions is highly essential to produce extra clean electrical steel. Therefore, one of the main objectives of this module is to study the influence of carryover slag on inclusions during refining of high silicon electrical steel with different synthetic slag.

10NML/IPSG/2018/2019/54157 (OLP 0345)2018-04-012019-03-31Mr. Gaurav Kumar BansalScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Development of Low Carbon Bainitic Steels (Module-I)

Abstract: The lower bainitic transformation in high and medium carbon steel has shown to achieve excellent strength-ductility combinations due to presence of nanobainite (20-40 nm). However, transformation kinetics has been found to be slow due to low temperatures involved. Subsequently, researches on low carbon steel (0.25-0.35 wt.%) with enhanced substitutional elements have resulted in coalescence of bainitic plates (120-150 nm) that lead to reduction in toughness of steel. Also, the reasons behind such coalescence are not fully understood. The possible options to further refine the bainite are modification in chemical composition of steel, altering the heat treatment schedule and controlling the prior austenite grain size through deformation of austenite. Also, the possibilities to achieve nano-bainite in steel containing carbon < 0.2 wt.% has not been given due consideration. However, the low carbon content allows broader application avenues. Therefore, the present work aims at designing a suitable alloy with carbon content < 0.2 wt.% and to study the bainite transformation through various processing routes so as to achieve highly refined bainite.

11NML/IPSG/2018/2019/55166 (OLP 0342)2018-04-012019-03-31Ammasi AThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & EnvironmentMetallurgical/Mineral Waste Utilisation

Title: A Process Development for Production of Glass-Ceramics Products from Metallurgical Slags

Abstract: Generally, glass– ceramics are polycrystalline materials, which is prepared by the controlled crystallization of glasses in two-stage manufacturing technique. However, utilization of raw ore for glass ceramics materials may be energy intensive or non-availability of sufficient quantity of raw materials for fulfilling the demands of glass ceramics products (i.e. huge consumption of ore resources). There is an increasing interest has developed in the preparation of glass-ceramics using metallurgical slag as the raw materials. The utilization (or recycling) of metallurgical slag into some useful applications is a potential step for cost saving and pollution free environments and availability of lands etc. Besides, it may be uneconomical to produce glass-ceramics in the conventional method (two-stage) which involves cooling (quenching) of the liquid pool to ambient temperature then heated to the high temperature for controlling the crystalline phase. Therefore, it has been thought of producing a glass ceramics materials in single stage method where direct cooling to ambient temperature it may be avoided. We have thought of using metallurgical slags (either BF slag or Cu Smelting Slag etc) as a raw material for preparation glass – ceramics materials in this project for potential application. For the glass – ceramics manufacturing process, initially metallurgical slag will be melted either in EAF or induction furnace to form a liquid pool then liquid slag will be cooled below the certain temperature which may either finish of glassy phase formation or the start of crystallization formation at the appropriate cooling rate and temperature for a particular composition to obtain the required amount of glassy and crystalline phase. It is very important to control the cooling rate, temperature and composition such way that required amorphous and crystalline phase may be obtained by single stage glass – ceramic manufacturing techniques.

12NML/IPSG/2018/2019/55898 (OLP 0349)2018-04-162019-04-15Swapna DeyScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringCorrosion

Title: Hydrogen assisted degradation and fracture in pipeline steel

Abstract: Pipeline steels are widely used for transportation and distribution of oil and natural gas for long distances, and the hydrogen assisted degradation is one of the issues that can affect the structural integrity of these pipelines during long term operation. Pipeline steels can pick-up hydrogen during transport of sour crude oil and other petroleum products. The presence of H2S, CO2 and brine in crude oil not only enhance the corrosion rate but also lead to environmental fracture assisted by enhanced uptake of hydrogen (H) atoms in steels. Moreover, external environmental conditions cause free corroding processes, where hydrogen can be generated on the metal surface as a result of the cathodic counterpart of the anodic dissolution reaction. Furthermore, under service conditions when cathodic protection system is in place, hydrogen charging of pipeline steels is also possible. As result, there is concern of structural integrity of aging buried pipelines having cathodic protection. The proposed work will assess the effect of hydrogen absorption and permeation in pipeline steel by cathodic hydrogen charging in NACE solution and in near neutral pH (NS4) solution, which simulate real operating environment. Therefore, the aim of the study is to obtain realistic data for development of hydrogen embrittlement criteria of steels employed in oil/gas industries. Corrosion is one of the most predominant causes of pipeline failures in oil and gas production, which are related to the physical and chemical factors as well as environmental conditions. Therefore, the study of corrosion by electrochemical methods is also necessary. This work will investigate the corrosion behaviour of pipeline steel by different electrochemical methods (potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)). The proposed research work will extend to study the effects of hydrogen on fracture toughness of the material with the aim to provide an explanation for the hydrogen effect on fracture resistance.

13NML/IPSG/2018/2019/60291 ()2018-04-012019-03-31Murugesan A PScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringMetal Forming

Title: Thermo -mechanical processing parameters on micro structures and hot deformation behavior of molybdenum added low carbon micro alloyed steel (Module 4)

Abstract: Line pipe steels, based on API standard, up to strength level of X70 grade are commercially made and being extensively used as structural material in oil and petroleum industries due to their excellent mechanical properties, like tensile strength, toughness and weldability. Although efforts have been made at industrial as well as laboratory level to develop materials beyond the strength level of X70, there are still no defined rule for composition design and suitable thermo-mechanical controlled processing (TMCP) schedule. The role of addition of Molybdenum (Mo) in low carbon micro-alloyed steel, under influence of deformation schedule around Tnr (Non recrysllaization temperature), finish rolling temperatures and cooling rate on development of beneficial micro structures (bainite, acicular ferrite) as per morphology of micro structural constituents by optical and scanning electron micro graphs have been studied. Hot deformation and its recrystallization behavior over a wide range of deformation temperatures (1100-900°C) at different strain rates (0.001 to 10) of low carbon micro-alloyed steels has also been studied in last modules. However, the mechanical properties of investigated steels are mainly governed by relative proportion of individual micro structural constituents (granular/lower bainite, acicular/polygonal ferrite, M/A constituents). The main objective of present module is to quantitatively analyse the micro structures and their micro mechanism of the samples processed at different TMCP conditions of investigated steels.

14NML/IPSG/2018/2019/62276 ()2018-04-162019-10-16Ganesh ChalavadiTechnology DevelopmentFast track(6 months)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Development of indigenous Air Stratifier for dry benfeciation

Abstract: Project Abstract Wet processing is commonly practiced for beneficiation of Coal. Dewatering of fines is an expensive operation. Rejects, in the form of slurry containing fines, cause environmental problems. With the implementation of dry beneficiation in physical beneficiation of Coal, environmental issues like slurry disposal, high cost involving downstream process like dewatering of products can be minimized. Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CBFC) in thermal power plants is a relatively new technology with the ability to achieve lower emission of pollutants. Besides, CBFC provides a greater flexibility in burning a wide range of coal and other fuels all this without compromising efficiency and with reduced pollution. CFBC uses crushed coal of 3 to 6 mm size. The existing dry beneficiation systems like air tables, AKAFLOW, FGX etc. are not applicable in this size range. So for dry beneficiation of coal in this size range an indigenous dry beneficiation unit is targeted for fabrication and experimentation. This indigenous dry beneficiation has the coal feed subjected to air pulsation there by causing density stratification and thereby causing physical beneficiation of coal.

15NML/IPSG/2018/2019/66115 ()2018-04-162019-04-15Paromita BiswasScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)OthersPetrography & Process Mineralogy


Abstract: Indian iron mining industry is currently mining the high-grade ores (more than 58 wt% Fe). However, the iron ore being a non-renewable natural resource, the reserve of good quality ore is ever dwindling. As per the notification of Indian Bureau of Mines, Government of India (T-45031/ CGBM/2007 (PF) dated October 2009 the threshold value as 45% Fe for hematitic ore and 35% Fe for hematitic siliceous ore is fixed for Goa. But it is remarkable to note that the marketable iron ore as recorded in the IBM Mineral Year Books of successive years is above 60% Fe because the industry is yet to adopt the beneficiation strategy in full swing. On the contrary, the taconite type iron ore with a grade 25% to 35% Fe is still in use in USA and Canada by adopting suitable processing and pelletisation technology. The first step in the process of such adaptation is proper characterization of relatively low-grade iron ore deposits. In this context the aim of this project is to characterize the low grade ore and fines deposit of Jharkhand – Orissa sector with a view to understand their effect on recovery. The ore- gangue association in the iron ore deposits of eastern India indicate complex geochemical and geological history of the ore deposits (Clout, 2003 and Morris, 1985). These iron ore deposits are rich in high grade ore but also contain medium to low grade ore having high alumina and silica contents (1-7%). In case of non-availability of high grade ore, it is necessary to tap on the reserve of comparatively low grade ore to meet future requirements. The low grade ore can be beneficiated to remove the impurities prior to use which represents a big challenge for Indian mineral processing industries. The nature of various iron ore received from different areas, even from a single mine would be different. Each type area has its own typical mineralogical and textural characteristics that respond to specific beneficiation technique. The choice of beneficiation technique depends upon the nature of gangue minerals present in the ore and their textural association with ore minerals. So, the characterization techniques play an important role in finding out suitable beneficiation techniques. Common industrial practices do not incorporate a comprehensive characterization, leading to an inefficient beneficiation process which could be optimized by careful physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization. As average grade of presently exploited iron ore is 58% Fe, the beneficiation strategies are limited. The ores with 40-58% Fe are still unclassified and the volume is not estimated. Their mineralogical, textural and geochemical information is lacking. Hence, the main purpose of the project is to identify and classify the iron ore with less than 58% Fe to better understand the complex texture and their implications for down-stream mineral processing. The proposed study will provide the much needed mineralogical data for the low-grade ores that can help to select appropriate beneficiation scheme.

16NML/IPSG/2018/2019/66261 (OLP 0346)2018-04-012019-03-31Avanish Kumar ChandanScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Microstructural evolution and deformation behavior of high entropy alloys at ambient and sub-ambient temperatures (Module 1)

Abstract: Owing to the vast latitude offered by the High Entropy Alloys (HEAs) in terms of versatility in alloy design and microstructure, the research in HEAs is trending worldwide. Since their advent more than a decade ago, HEAs have been attracting tremendous research attention due to attractive properties over conventional engineering materials, such as ultra-high fracture toughness exceeding that of most metals and alloys, excellent strength comparable to that of structural ceramics and metallic glasses, superconductivity, adequate corrosion resistance etc. The equi-atomic, fully FCC structure, FeMnCrCoNi alloy is one of the most successful HEA with exceptional mechanical properties at cryo temperatures. However, the room temperature properties of the same are not attractive. The reason for lucrative mechanical properties of this alloy is the occurrence of nano-twins at cryo temperature but not at room temperature during deformation. Deformation behaviour of FCC system is principally governed by stacking fault energy (SFE). SFE, on the other hand, is dependent on the composition of the system and service temperature. The present study aims to design new lean alloys based on the SFE of the resulting alloy. The effect of composition vis a vis SFE on the deformation behaviour of the alloy will be studied. Role of various SFE dependent deformation characteristics on the final mechanical properties at ambient and sub-ambient temperatures will be investigated.

17NML/IPSG/2018/2019/66950 ()2018-04-162019-03-31Sunati MohantyScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Study of dewatering behaviour of fine particles in hydrocyclone

Abstract: In mineral processing industries, most of the separation processes involve substantial quantities of water and the final concentrate/tailing has to be separated from pulp in which water-solid ratio is high. So dewatering of fine particles, separation of solid from liquid is an important aspect in mineral processing. The dewatering screening efficiency decreases as the fineness of particles increases. In this regard, keeping the advantage of centrifugal sedimentation, hydrocyclone is found to be the efficient solid-liquid separator. By the proper choice of dimension and operating condition, it is possible for a hydrocyclone to act as thickener. So understanding of the operating and design parameters that influence the dewatering efficiency of hydrocyclone is required. In this proposal it is aimed at optimization study of parameters influencing the dewatering efficiency of hydrocyclone in fine scale. However, any design modification which can improve the dewatering efficiency compared to the existing hydrocyclone may be of interest of this proposal.