Ongoing Projects

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S.No. Number Start Date End Date Project Leader Category Type Core Area Sub Area
       
1NML/IPSG/2020/2021/18343 ()2020-10-162021-10-15Paritosh Dubey Thematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringSurface Modification

Title: Understanding the Phenomenon and Enhancement of Anti-icing Properties of HVOF deposited coating

Abstract: We are well familiar and fascinate with the snow, condensation, frost, freezing of liquids and another icing related phenomenon occurring ubiquitously in nature and multiple industrial applications. However, natural icing or ice accretion/adhesion is categorized as a potential hazard for aviation, maritime, transportation, natural energy harvesting and power transmission sectors. The ice accretion/adhesion deteriorates the efficiency, caused failure and economic losses, consume a large quantity of energy for ice removal and most significantly essential, safety risks. The mentioned sectors are demanding a robust, durable, nonhazardous, and economical solution to mitigate/remove/reduce the negative impacts of icing or delay/withstand with the icing related phenomenon. Among the vast available on anti-icing or de-icing solutions, the superhydrophobic coating solution attracts much attention to the scientific community in fulfilling the industry's requirements. The superhydrophobic coating is a passive anti-icing approach that may help in preventing or reducing snow accumulation, ice freezing, and ice adhesion on surfaces without interference from any external energy. Though superhydrophobic is of significant interest for researchers for real-world applications, its application is challenging to obtain satisfactory anti-icing performance, maintain long-term repellency and strong mechanical stability, and adopt environmental-friendly and commercializable methods. Therefore, in this present study, we proposed a fast and straight forward fabrication method to prepare a super-hydrophobic coating on steel substrates by high-velocity oxygen- fuel (HVOF) spraying method. The present study may help us to develop an understanding of the icing phenomenon and enhancement of anti-icing properties of HVOF deposited coating.

2NML/IPSG/2020/2021/25309 ()2020-10-012021-09-30Swati PramikScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Rational Design of Solvent System: A Novel Approach for Recycling Metals from leach solution of Cathode Materials of Lithium-ion Batteries by solvent extraction. (Module-III Studies on the physico-chemical behavior of mixture of amine (pri, sec, ter and quart amines) and organophosphoric compounds (Phosphoric, phosphonic and phosphinic acids) for the solvent extraction and separation of Li, Co, Ni and Mn.)

Abstract: The state-of-the-art shows the main challenges involved in the LiBs recycling and the importance of the development of new extracting agents for the selective recovery of Co, Ni, Mn and Li. The development of versatile processes capable to treat a large variety of LiBs technology utilizing Co, Ni, Mn and Li elements is one of these challenges. It could be reached by developing new selective and efficient extractants and implementing optimised and adapted flowsheets in order to minimize effluent generation and reactive consumption. For this goal, amine and organophosphorus acids appear as the best choice of extractants .The concept of this project for developing new extraction solvents relies on the use of a mixture of two extracting functions in the extraction solvent, which are active or non-active depending on the operating conditions. Cationic exchangers bear acidic function which are active at pH greater than the pKa value while amine extractants can extract metals provided that they exist as anionic species, i.e. at high sulfate or chloride concentration in the leach solution. Therefore, the concept introduced could be used to separate Co(II), Ni(II) and Mn(II) as they form both cationic and anionic species depending on the pH and chloride concentration of aqueous solution. Effect of structural changes of both amines and organophosphorus extractants towards extraction of Li, Co, Ni and Mn and physico-chemistry involved in the liquid-liquid extraction will be evaluated by correlating extraction and separation with pka, pkb and aggregation behavior of extractants in diferent diluents systems.

3NML/IPSG/2020/2021/35761 ()2020-10-162021-10-15Gorja Sudhakar RaoThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringCorrosion

Title: EFFECT OF DEFORMATION INDUCED MARTENSITE AND DISLOCATIONS ON THE HYDROGEN PERMEATION AND HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF AUSTENITIC STEELS

Abstract: Austenitic stainless steels (ASSs) are known for good resistance to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) compared to other structural alloys, because of low diffusivity and high solubility of H in austenite structure of steels. Therefore ASSs are considered as primary choice material for hydrogen storage and transportation applications in the hydrogen based energy automobile systems; where HE is very important and probable failure mechanism. Hydrogen can be stored either as gas or liquid state. Storage of gas form requires storage tanks operating at very high pressure of about 300-700 bar (compressed H2 gas), while storage of liquid/gas hydrogen (cryo-compressed H2) requires storage tanks operated at cryogenic temperature (-253 °C) and pressure about 250-350 bar for economic reasons. To operate at such a high pressures and low temperatures requires high strength materials. However, ASSs have low yield strength (YS) ranging from (216-230MPa). The YS and tensile strength of ASSs is generally improved by cold work to accommodate high compressed H. The metastable ASSs strength is improved by martenstic transformation and strain hardening by dislocations. But ASSs suffer HE in the cold worked state. There have been several investigations on the hydrogen embrittlement of metastable and stabilized austenitic stainless steels, focused on the effects of cold worked strain induced martensite, sensitization, alloying elements. Mostly the studies were carried out after hydrogen pre-charging by gas or electrochemical method of the cold worked/pre-strained steel at single temperature with limited degree of cold work percent (less than 30%) and compared with the annealed steel by using SSRT or constant load methods. Very limited studies are available on the cold work over wide temperature range and degree of cold work percent to understand the effect of deformation induced martensite (DIM) and microstructural features on HE. Further the higher embrittlement in the cold worked state was mainly attributed to formation of DIM after cold work, which enabled more H entry in to the steel and consequently results higher embrittlement. There are also reports saying positive effect of pre-strain in metastable ASSs. It is important to mention that cold work not only induce martensitic transformation but also significantly increases dislocations structures density. Dislocations are also one of the main path for hydrogen diffusion in the materials in addition to the grain boundaries, and the effect of the increased dislocation density on hydrogen permeation/entry and HE has been ignored. Therefore in the present proposed project it is planned to investigate the cold and warm rolling over wide range of temperatures (-193 C to 150C/200 C) with different degree of cold work percent in metastable ASSs with the aim of increase the strength and subsequently to analyze influence of the DIM formation and morphology, and dislocation density on H permeation and embrittlement of metastable austenitic steel. SEM, TEM and XRD characterization methods used to analyze the morphology of DIM, dislocation density and deformation behavior.

4NML/IPSG/2020/2021/35802 ()2020-10-162021-10-15Chandra Veer SinghThematic ResearchExpress Track(3 Months)Materials EngineeringMechanical Behaviour of Materials

Title: Module 3: High Temperature Crack Growth of Cr-Mo Steels

Abstract: The growth of cracks strongly depends on the amount of the material in the vicinity of crack-tip coupled with the ductility of the material. Varied combinations of the two, give rise to distinct constraint conditions for a growing crack. The quantitative understanding of crack-growth under di􀃠erent constraint conditions is imperative to ensure the integrity of the components especially operating at higher temperatures. The experiments pertaining to study the e􀃠ect of constraint wherein specimens of varying geometries and sizes would be explored. This work would provide insight into the relevant information required for the next generation of design codes and assessment procedures

5NML/IPSG/2020/2021/36672 ()2020-10-162021-10-15Bhupendra KumhareScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyProcess Modeling

Title: Behaviour of Mold Flux during Continuous Casting of Light weight Steels

Abstract: Mold flux powders used in continuous casting process have some specific role to improve the efficacy. Some of the primary functions of mold fluxes are to i) provide ample lubrication between solidifying shell and mold walls, ii) prevent atmospheric oxidation of molten steel, iii) facilitate optimum horizontal heat flux, iv) and act as a pool for absorption of NMIs. During continuous casting of high Al steels (>0.5% Al) using CaO-SiO2 based mold powders, the reduction of molten oxides (especially SiO2) by Al content in steel at the slag-metal interface, has proven to be source of major process irregularities. To overcome the chemical instability of conventional CaO-SiO2 based mold powders, CaO-Al2O3 based mold powders are identified as an alternate for high Al steels. However, it is inferred from many studies and plant reports, CaO-Al2O3 based mold fluxes still suffer from lack of continuous lubrication due to irregular crystallization behaviour. In addition to the above practice, direct feeding of molten mould flux has also been identified to entertain smooth casting of high Al steels. Therefore, a detailed investigation to understand the chemical stability of mold fluxes during continuous casting of high Al steels is essential. The above objective also necessitates assessment of molten mold flux behaviour at the slag-metal interface using physical model techniques, which has been proposed in the present module. The understanding developed from the physical model experiments will be employed to mold flux design and high temperature experimental campaign to assess the chemical stability of mold fluxes for high Al steel

6NML/IPSG/2020/2021/38118 ()2020-10-162021-10-15Avanish Kumar ChandanThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Discerning the individual and synergistic effect of carbide inhibitors on austenite retention and stability in medium manganese advanced high strength steels

Abstract: Over the last decade, research in the field of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) for automotive applications has undergone a paradigm shift from low manganese (Mn) transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) aided and high Mn twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels to medium Mn (3-10 wt.% Mn) TRIP and/or TWIP aided steels. This is primarily due to the unique combination of strength and ductility achieved in medium Mn steels. These steels are annealed in the intercritical region (between Ae1 and Ae3 temperatures) for the enrichment of austenite phases with carbon and Mn and therefore, achieving the austenite retention at room temperature. However, it has been shown in many studies that these steels are very much prone to carbide precipitation (M3C, M23C6, etc.) in the intercritical region. These carbides consume a significant amount of carbon and Mn, leading to a deficiency of these elements in the austenite phase. As a result, this austenite transforms to martensite/bainite during cooling to room temperature from the intercritical region, which has detrimental effects on the ductility and impact toughness. The available literature shows that these carbides can be eliminated to certain extent by alloying with Si and Al. However, a higher addition of these elements has detrimental effects, such as rolled in scale defect, issues in hot-dip galvanizing, smelting difficulties, etc. In this context, there are many studies available on intercritical annealing of medium Mn steels, however, the amount of Al and Si have been chosen arbitrarily. One of the reason for this is the inability of well-known software such as ThermoCalc, Dictra, JMatPro, etc. to provide any information on effects of these elements on carbide precipitation tendency. Therefore, it is of significant importance to perform a systematic experimental study to decipher the role of these elements on carbide inhibition and therefore, the change in the amount and characteristics of austenite phase, and the ensuing mechanical properties. Based on the above, the present work aims to investigate the individual and synergistic effect Si and Al on austenite phase stabilization in a low carbon medium Mn steel. A correlation will be established between the Al and/or Si content, retained austenite phase content, its stability and the mechanical properties (tensile, charpy impact toughness), which will definitely pave the way for researchers to select these elements in an optimum amount.

7NML/IPSG/2020/2021/4178 ()2020-10-162021-10-15Rashmi SinglaScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & EnvironmentMetallurgical/Mineral Waste Utilisation

Title: Study of structure-property correlations of inorganic - organic hybrid geopolymers

Abstract: Geopolymer based materials show excellent mechanical properties, thermal stability, freeze-thaw, acid and fire resistance, long term durability etc. Above all, the use of geopolymers can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions up to 80% in comparison to traditional cement based materials. However, their brittle mechanical behavior and consequently low fracture toughness limits their extensive applications as structural material. This problem can be overcome through the development of superior composite materials/hybrids tailored for the intended applications in a specific manner. In this regard, hybrids through simple mixing route and through mechanical activation route have been synthesized in the previous modules. In continuation with this, module-III will explore the structure-property correlation of the prepared hybrid geopolymers. For this, detailed characterisation studies would be done.

8NML/IPSG/2020/2021/43128 ()2020-10-162021-10-15Shivendra SinhaScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Development of Functionalized MOF and its composites for the adsorption of light rare earths from effluent/dilute leach solution: Dynamic filtration studies with mass transfer modelling

Abstract: With ever-growing technological advancement, it is realized that the Rare Earth Elements (REE’s) are omnipresent. They are extensively used in cell phone, televisions, led lights bulbs, batteries, magnets, wind turbines and so forth; making it a critically useful element in recent scenario. However, considering its limited sources coupled with huge demand, it is thus imperative to recover these elements from alternative sources (like effluents, geothermal brine, dilute leach solution of lean grade resources) to augment the feedstock to meet the current needs. Thus, development of efficient process for separation of REEs is of great significance. In this regard, this Ph.D. module will explore the development of functionalized MOF and its composites for adsorptive separation of REEs from simulated solution/effluents. Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are new generation, highly porous and chemically stable nano-material with flexibility of functionalization and have been proven for adsorptive separation of heavy metals from effluents/dilutes solutions. However, their potential is untapped in the separation of rare earth elements along with its limited usage in dynamic column filtration owing to its size that restricts the bed permeability. Thus, this study attempts to identify and functionalized MOF to render it suitable for REE extraction along with compositing with compatible polymeric material to porous prepare beads desirable for dynamic column filtration.

9NML/IPSG/2020/2021/73739 ()2020-10-162021-09-15Rajanikant ChoudhariScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Extraction and recovery of copper from lean grade chalcopyrite

Abstract: Copper is an important element to use for electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, anticorrosion purpose. Presently, the availability of the high grade copper ore is bound to decline. For copper, approximately 20% of total primarily extracted from hydrometallurgy route. The process improvement and the kinetic study of the copper leaching from low grade chalcopyrite ore in different acid media will be present in this paper. The effect of major leaching parameters of copper leaching efficiencies will be determined. The objective of this study will be developed process flow sheet for the recovery of copper from lean grade chalcopyrite followed by hydrometallurgy route. The effect of several parameters including agitation, temperature, acid concentration and particle size of the copper leaching efficiency will be evaluated. In addition, the leaching kinetics will be examined according to heterogeneous reaction models and the best fitted equation to the experimental data will be determined.

10NML/IPSG/2020/2021/83982 ()2020-10-162021-10-15Ajita KumariThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Neural network-based sensitivity analysis and performance optimization of carbon recovery from Blast furnace and Corex plant sludge of JSW Steel plant using froth flotation - A step towards Waste-to-Wealth management

Abstract: Sustainable development can only be achieved by maintaining human development goals, ecological development and preservence of natural resources for current as well as future generations simultaneously. Mining and mineral-based industries have a huge role to play in sustainability. Processing plant tailings and sludge from steel plants contain solids in water which can contaminate soil and water supplies resulting in environmental damage. However, these solids suspended in water (sludge) still contain valuable minerals which can be recovered for primary and secondary usage, as a step towards Waste-to-Wealth management. Carbon in the sludge from Blast furnaces and Corex plants of M/s JSW Steel plant was reported to be present in the range of 18%-25%. The objective of intended investigation is to recover maximum carbon at a minimum grade of 60% carbon by flotation. Flotation is a selective process of separating hydrophobic particles from hydrophilic ones by maintaining the optimum physical and chemical environment. As per the new norms and guidelines, by-products of industrial plants should contain less than specified levels of chemicals. In the proposed study, biocollectors which are environmental friendly will be used for carbon recovery. Over the years, research has been carried out on process optimization of froth flotation by adopting different methods. However, studies on neural network-based sensitivity analysis and related process optimization are very limited. Important process parameters such as pulp density, flotation reagent dosage, pH etc. would be varied according to a statistically designed experimental methodology. An empirical model will be developed to assess the process responses and the overall efficiency. The process will then be modelled using artificial neural network to fit the random data in a continuous pattern. Sensitivity analysis will organize the input variables in the order of significant effectiveness on the individual responses.

11NML/IPSG/2021/2021/81531 ()2021-06-152022-03-31KRISHNA KUMARTechnology DevelopmentFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyPyrometallurgy

Title: Investigations on the NMLS retort technology for magnesium metal production

Abstract: CSIR NML has developed a retort based process to extract magnesium metal on principle of solid state- silico-thermic reduction of calcined dolomite during 1960-70. A commercial plant of 250 TPA capacity was developed and commissioned successfully to produce magnesium for domestic R&D needs of country by 1968-1972. The plant could run successfully at NML upto 1986 and latter it transferred to industry . Mg metal was produced upto scale of 600 TPA at SMCL, which also developed its capacity to 1000 TPA. The plant couldn't survived after 1996 and thus Mg metal production in India was halted. CSIR NML ventured into development of liquid state silicothermic reduction technology with direct internal heating i.e. Electrothermal process(R) for high yield, low space time, low labor intensive and relatively very less pollution features. This project aims to revisit the NML's Mg technology based on pidgeon process with all possible technological advancements in the field of furnace, retort, process control, automation, materials and engineering aspects towards its suitability in adaption to produce magnesium metal in current scenario in India. The project is aimed to re-develop the designs with investigation to earlier features. alongwith the plant design, retort and furnace aspects will be investigated alongwith other process parameters of grinding, briqqueting and reduction kinetics. techno-commercial assessment of NML's retort process will be carried out towards feasibility to set up 500-1000 TPA commercial plant for Magnesium metal production with knowledge-base available. On the other side, the prototype development (at 1-2 kg Mg metal scale) activity will enable practical experiences to use the retort process for Mg production in future.

12NML/IPSG/2021/2022/14664 ()2021-06-012022-03-31Vaibhav GaurScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMicrostructural Characterisation

Title: Determining the process route parameters of the formation of stable Face Centred Cubic Titanium

Abstract: Localized transformations of hcp structure titanium alloy to fcc via stacking faults were reported by several researchers. FCC structure is expected to enhance mechanical properties of otherwise titanium with hcp/bcc structure. This was elucidated by a limited modeling exercise due to the absence of bulk fcc Ti. But in the previous work, it is suspected that the transformation happened due to the twinning, which is not clear. In this study, an attempt will be made to establish the lattice transition temperature by using DSC/DTA and dilatometry techniques. After establishing the β transus temperature, hcp titanium will be subjected to plane strain compression for various durations at different temperature intervals (within dual structure range) for identifying the conditions of maximizing fcc titanium in the microstructure. The evolving microstructure will be characterized for its structure and microstructure using advanced characterization techniques. High Resolution TEM will be used to investigate the specific mode of transformation. An attempt will be made to understand the effect of structure, fcc and hcp fraction on deformation behavior mechanism.

13NML/IPSG/2021/2022/16320 ()2021-06-012021-11-30Premkumar MurugaiyanThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Study of Amorphous magnetic alloy flakes for Microwave Absorbing Materials (2-18 GHz): Tuning magnetic permeability through flake microstructure and Morphology.

Abstract: Microwave absorbing Materials (MAM) are utilized in modern applications like EMI shielding, aviation, electronic security, mitigation of electromagnetic pollution etc. The Microwave absorbing materials (MAM) are generally composite in nature containing combination of dielectric and magnetic materials to have wide band absorption performance. The attenuation of incoming microwaves by a MAM will be through multiple material losses in the form of ohmic, eddy, dielectric, hysteresis and polarization losses. The magnetic permeability is a key material parameter for a magnetic filler material and governed by intrinsic magneto-crystalline anisotropy constant (K1), saturation magnetization and cut-off frequency. The present work focusses on utilizing Fe/Co based amorphous alloys, milled in the form of micron sized flakes as magnetic fillers to form absorber composites. The work proposes to achieve enhanced magnetic performance of amorphous alloys compared to existing metal powders, carbonyl iron powders, spinel ferrites and Nano-sized metallic materials. The enhanced permeability is attributed to absence of long-range structural ordering eliminating magneto-crystalline anisotropy (K1) and improved cut-off frequency due to flake morphology. Also the present work proposes a novel way of nano-materialization of existing amorphous alloys by generating in-situ nanocrystal and nanoporous network to exceed Snoeks limit of permeability. The reflection loss (RL) of developed magnetic filler impregnated polymer composites will be evaluated for microwave absorption behavior in 2-18 GHz range.

14NML/IPSG/2021/2022/17236 ()2021-06-012022-03-31Shweta GhoshScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringSurface Modification

Title: Synthesis and Development of Al-Si-Cu-N Nanocomposite Coatings for Antibacterial Applications

Abstract: Escherichia coli bacterial infection is a prevalent infection to humankind (more than one crore cases per year in India). E. coli bacteria is responsible for food poisoning that causes diarrhea, cramps, vomiting, and in its worse form, can lead to kidney failure. It can also contribute to pneumonia and urinary tract infections. Most of these infections are transmitted easily in humans through direct/indirect contact to the infected surfaces found at various places like hospitals, schools, buses, trains, ATMs, cinema halls, etc. Millions of deaths are reported globally due to contact contamination. The spread of bacterial infection from the infected surfaces can be controlled using coating technology. In recent years, a great effort has been devoted to developing antibacterial nanocomposite coatings to combat pathogenic strains, kill bacteria and curb their spread through surfaces. The nanocomposite coating must combine good mechanical properties and antibacterial functions for a long lifetime. In the presented module, the synthesis and development of the Al-Cu-Si-N nanocomposite coating over the glass, silicon, and steel substrates using magnetron sputtering have been proposed to achieve a combination of antibacterial (against E. Coli bacteria) and protective nature of the overlay.

15NML/IPSG/2021/2022/17759 ()2021-06-012022-03-31Y UshaThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMaterials Modeling

Title: Numerical modelling of heat transfer and fluid flow in Selective Laser Melting (SLM) of SS316L

Abstract: Selective laser melting(SLM), is a rapid prototyping, oradditive manufacturing(AM) technique in which high power-densitylaser melts and fuses the metallic powders spread across the work area. Powder based additive manufacturing process have similarities with welding. However, molten pool produced by laser source is smaller and solidifies at higher cooling rate than welding It is also observed that peak temperature of molten pool can be much higher than the liquidus temperature. Therefore, highly non-uniform temperature distribution is expected inside the molten pool as temperature will be highest near the heat source and decrease significantly near the boundary. The variation in temperature distribution will result in surface tension gradient, which will drive the liquid metal flow inside the molten pool. In addition to that, substrate acts as a heat sink and conduction heat loss decreases progressively with deposition of layers. It is also noted that solidified microstructure of AM components will strongly depend on heat flux direction and temperature gradient. Therefore, special temperature distribution and heat source characteristics will significantly affect the many metallurgical parameters including solidified microstructure and residual stress distribution of the part. A comprehensive understanding of heat transfer mechanisms and molten pool dynamics will assist to minimize compositional gradient and unfavourable microstructure,which cumulatively affect the overall strength and mechanical properties of a printed structure. Therefore, an attempt will be made in this investigation for better understanding of thermal fluid dynamics to mitigate these effects. It is noted that molten pool dynamics depend on many parameters such as volumetric energy density, powder material characteristics etc. Thus, the properties of the part manufactured using SLM will be influenced by critical process parameters such as laser power, scan velocity, hatch spacing, deposited layer thickness, powder size etc. Hence, it is pivotal to understand the effect of important process parameters on properties of SS316L components produced by SLM technique. Therefore, the goal of the present study is to develop a reliable 2D/3D mathematical model to capture the transient thermal and molten pool dynamic in case of aSS316L alloy during SLM process. An attempt will also made to validate the developed model with the available literature data. The systematic comparison of the numerical results with available experimental data including the variation in melt pool dimensions and energy density will help in understanding the insights of SLM process. Additionally, an attempt will also be made for optimising volumetric energy density for SS316L with solely numerical simulation approach by performing both finite element modelling (FEM) and volume of fluid (VOF) analysis along with design of experiment (DoE). The predicted results will be compared with the optimised energy density obtained from the experimental results.

16NML/IPSG/2021/2022/18158 ()2021-06-012022-03-31KOMAL SINGHScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringSurface Modification

Title: Development of high efficiency Tin Selenide based Thermoelectric and optically tunable coatings for alternative energy harvesting from different industrial applications (Module III) : Effect of different PVD processes on Doped Tin selenide

Abstract: Thermoelectric and optically tunable coatings are very much required for alternative energy harvesting from different industrial applications. They are considered to be great resource for the alternative energy to tap many waste heat energies in different industrial processing right from metallurgical industry to electronic industry. Among different thermoelectric materials selenides have shown reasonably higher figure of merit (ZT). A higher figure of merit can be obtained in single crystal however they are very brittle and hence limits the device applications. The polycrystalline bulk sample show much lesser efficiency. Hence, doping can play an important role for development of thermoelectric material with high figure of merit as well as the effect of different PVD processes can be studied for better performance. The effect of the deposition process on doped tin selenide can be useful to know which deposition process is more effective for thermoelectric thin films. The proposed research aims for the development of doped SnSe coating with high figure of merit and optically band gap tunable coatings by different PVD processes (Sputtering, Thermal Evaporation & E beam Evaporation). The investigation of the different mechanisms and structure property correlation of thermoelectric, thermal, electrical, structural and microstructure.

17NML/IPSG/2021/2022/22483 ()2021-06-012022-03-22Madan MThematic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringMaterials Modeling

Title: Multi Physics and Heat treatment Simulation of Additive Manufacturing Process for property prediction of SS316L

Abstract: A three-dimensional model will be developed to simulate the multi-track construction of steel during selective laser melting. Variable laser powers and scanning speeds will be used to execute the multi-physics simulations to investigate fundamental physics involve during the melting and solidification process. Our study will be focus on the evolution of microstructure and porosity (cavity) during synthesis of steel. Additionally, we will examine mechanical properties of developed steel. Also, the three dimensional property prediction of the SS316L components will be simulated for as received and different heat-treated conditions, enabling us to find optimum mechanical properties.

18NML/IPSG/2021/2022/26445 ()2021-06-012022-03-31Shubhada KarScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Precipitation hardened compositionally complex Ni-based alloys aided with HDI strengthening

Abstract: Development of high performance structural materials for applications in automotive and aerospace sectors has been an evergreen area of rigorous research. Conventional strengthening mechanisms employed in alloy design increases the strength of the material at the expense of its ductility. In a quest to improve strength-ductility synergy, a large number of studies were performed by many researchers employing various combination of strengthening mechanisms, which include solid solution strengthening, precipitation strengthening, dislocation strengthening, grain boundary strengthening and dispersion strengthening. In recent years, significant emphasis is given by researchers to explore the effect of compositional and microstructural heterogeneity on mechanical properties of functional materials. Considering heterogeneity with respect to microstructure, designed alloy could be gradient, bimodal, lamellar, harmonic etc. It has been observed that incorporation of this inhomogeneity results in improving the strength-ductility balance of the material. However, application of this approach is mainly restricted to conventional materials which generally hinder exploration of new materials with better strength-ductility synergy. With discovery of high entropy alloy concept, a vast compositional space became available for the material science community to play with. Keeping this in view, first module of this project aimed at designing suitable alloy compositions based on CALPHAD approach to take advantage of precipitation kinetics and other microstructural heterogeneity to achieve better strength-ductility synergy. Following its casting, the alloys were subjected to homogenization treatment. An effort has been made to improve the understanding of the recrystallization and precipitation kinetics of the designed alloy systems. Following the establishment of the kinetics for recrystallization and precipitation behaviour, this module aims at designing a desired microstructure via controlled thermo-mechanical processing.

19NML/IPSG/2021/2022/29477 ()2021-06-012022-03-31MOHANA RAO ANDAVARAPUScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Characterization, Beneficiation and Coke Formation Studies on Low Volatile Coking Coal for Metallurgical Utility (Module-II)

Abstract: Huge quantities of coking coal fines and ultra-fines are generated at the coal mining industry due to advanced exploration techniques adopted for achieving large production targets. These useful fines are discarded and dumped without being processed over a decade, as a result, wastage of scared commodity coal resources and also led to environmental pollution. Many mineral engineering researchers attempted to beneficiate the coal fines using simple gravity and flotation techniques. However, these methods are economically inefficient to produce clean coal due to poor gravitational effect on coal fines and also entrainment difficulties with fine particles in flotation. To overcome these difficulties, centrifugal enhanced gravity separators are used for treating the ultra-fine coal particles efficiently. In the present study, three commercially available Enhanced Gravity Separators (EGS) namely Multi gravity separators, Falcon concentrators and Kelsey Jig will be used for difficult to wash low volatile coking coal fines. To achieve the optimum clean coal product, effects of key variables include operating parameters along with feed size variation to be studied for each EGS unit with the help of DOE software package. The results of each technique will be compared in terms of clean coal ash content, yield and recovery. Flotation studies will also be carried out varying the process parameters on LVC coals to accomplish the comparative studies with EGS results in terms of separation efficiency. These attempts will be made to found the most suitable techniques for beneficiation of LVC coal fines to produce suitable clean coal for making metallurgical coke.

20NML/IPSG/2021/2022/37290 ()2021-06-012022-03-31MAHESH GULAB WALUNJScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringSurface Modification

Title: Mitigation of galvanizability of steel surface through adoption of sol-gel pre-coating and improvement in corrosion resistance of galvanizing coating through post intercalated ion conversion method

Abstract: High strength steel sheets for automobile applications require corrosion protection of Zn-Al (0.12 to 0.2 wt%) alloy coating made by hot dip process in continuous galvanizing line (CGL) of steel industries. The selective oxidation of the elements like Mn, Si, Al, Cr, V, Nb, Ti, etc. present in the surface of steel prior to dipping in the CGL bath causes poor wettability and defective products having uncoated or bare spots. Till date, several processes are developed to overcome the wettability issues of high strength steels in CGL production and all these processes are having their own merits and disadvantages. Those processes are suitable for specific grades of high strength steels and the type of coatings such as, Galvanized, Galvannealing, Galvalume, Al-Si or Zn-Al-Mg. At CSIR-NML, a unique pre-coating process of Fe-based sol-gel pre-layer has been developed at prior to dipping into molten metal hot dipping bath for high quality GI, GA, Al-Si, Galvalume and ZAM coatings on steel surface using normal industrial process parameters, namely, dew point, thermal cycles and dipping parameters etc. The process of Fe-based sol-gel pre-coats is an energy incentive and easily scalable for industrial CGL production. Further fundamental research and scientific studies are required to develop sol-gel coating at minimum economic cost, understand the effect of coating wettability, reduction kinetics of Fe based pre-coat for optimization of the process and the mechanism for the effectiveness of coating microstructural features on mechanical behavior for automobile applications. It is further required to improve electrochemical behavior of galvanizing coating for better corrosion resistance. The approach is used to develop the hydrophobic and a stable post intercalated ion coating by chemical conversion technique.

21NML/IPSG/2021/2022/45866 ()2021-06-012022-03-31Dr Sudeshna Das ChakrabortyScholastic ResearchFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: DESIGNING OF A MAGNETO-PLASMONIC GRAPHENE MATERIAL AND ITS MULTIMODAL APPLICATION IN CATALYSIS.

Abstract: Abstract: Global warming, mass extinction, environmental pollution and diseases caused by air, water and soil pollution are the major concern of recent time. These adverse affect is majorly caused by the burning of carbonaceous fuels to meet the energy demand of the modern epoch. Movement towards sustainable environment is possible by replacing fossil fuel with green energy. Use of Solar power via solar cell, Solar-Thermal energy via parabolic dish, solar pond etc are the technologies for the green energy production [1]. Likewise, to reduce the carbon emission methanol, ethanol (high energy density with short carbon chain) and H2 Fuel cell technologies are showing promising outcome. H2 oxidation for H2O fuel cell and Methanol oxidation for methanol fuel cell, are the energy uphill process and requires an efficient catalyst to favor the reactions [2]. So this project is aiming at the development of efficient catalysts or catalytic approaches to enhance the efficiency of a reaction related to green energy production for the establishment of a carbon neutral, clean and sustainable economy. Among them, this module of the project will deal with the H2 evolution from H2O to use the H2 as a fuel. Research has shown that water electrolysis can be the most promising hydrogen source and it consists of two half-reactions (1) Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) (2) oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The main challenge lies in overcoming the large over potentials for a desirable current density as the reactions go through multiple proton-coupled electron transfer process [3]. Between HER and OER, OER is the slower process and hence the rate determining step and it suffers from inherent sluggish kinetic and restricts the overall reaction rate. To promote the reaction kinetics and overcome the potential barrier several approaches have been explored like by designing new catalytic materials, fabrication of different morphologies, exposing high energy crystalline facets, imposing defects in the catalytic interfaces [4]. Moreover, effect of electric field, introduction of strain and photonic field on the water splitting are being explored [5]. Similarly, effect of magnetic field on the electrocatalytic processes is a very recent approach and not explored much. So in this project a magneto-plasmonic graphene material is designed to perform the magneto-electrochemical experiments towards the electrochemical water splitting reaction. In the hetero structured catalyst, the magnetic moiety will provide the actual magnetic field effect. Furthermore, the graphene moiety is useful for large surface area and high conductance [6]. In addition, the plasmonic doping is planned for generating more active catalytic sites, higher conductance and also taking into consideration of the role of noble metal in enhancing the electrocatalytic performance in many ways.