Ongoing Projects

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S.No. Number Start Date End Date Project Leader Category Type Core Area Sub Area
       
1NML/IPSG/2013/2014/1460 ()2013-10-012014-09-30V.RajinikanthR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMicrostructural Characterisation

Title: Correlation of stereological parameters with mechanical properties of micro alloyed steels: Module I -Micro structural processing and quantification.

Abstract: Acicular ferrite (AF)/ bainite (B) is often reported as the most desirable microstructure for development of high strength pipeline grade micro alloyed steels. However the mechanism of its formation is explained mostly with respect to microstructure evolution from inclusions during welding and claims are being made that it is intragranular variant of bainite. There are no proper systematic investigations towards: (i) resolving the above claim and (ii) development of desired fractions of acicular ferrite in different micro structural combinations with other micro structural constituents like retained austenite, M-A, polygonal ferrite, martensite, bainite etc., in a thermo mechanical processing schedule. The objective of the proposed investigation is aimed at addressing the above two issues by employing stereological methods like serial sectioning, disector etc., to compare and contrast acicular ferrite and bainite and controlled processing using Gleeble thermo mechanical simulator to obtain desired microstructural combinations by optimizing processing condition. The desired outcome is the development of processing schedule to obtain varying fractions of AF/B for the microalloyed steel and its quantification

2NML/IPSG/2014/2015/96088 ()2014-10-012015-09-30V.RajinikanthR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMicrostructural Characterisation

Title: Correlations of stereological parameters with mechanical properties of micro alloyed steels – Module II: Effect of thermomechanical processing parameters on acicular ferrite formation

Abstract: Acicular ferrite (AF)/ bainite (B) is often reported as the most desirable microstructure for development of high strength pipeline grade micro alloyed steels. However the mechanism of its formation is explained mostly with respect to microstructure evolution from inclusions during welding and claims are being made that it is intragranular variant of bainite. There are no proper systematic investigations towards: (i) resolving the above claim and (ii) development of desired fractions of acicular ferrite in different micro structural combinations with other micro structural constituents like retained austenite, M-A, polygonal ferrite, martensite, bainite etc., in a thermo mechanical processing schedule. It is also observed from the results of Module I- microstructural processing and quantification that the strained regions show predominantly acicular ferrite microstructure and strain free region shows bainite microstructure under the similar processing conditions. Therefore, the objective of the proposed investigation is aimed at studying the effect of applied strain on the formation of acicular ferrite microstructure. The Gleeble thermo mechanical simulator will be used to obtain different strain levels for the desired microstructure. The desired outcome is the understanding the mechanism of acicular ferrite formation due to applied strain and processing temperature.

3NML/IPSG/2015/2016/1 ()2015-10-012016-09-30Beena KuamriKnowledge ManagementFull tenure(1 year)R&D ManagementInformation Management

Title: Preparation and maintenance of CSIR-NML periodical records in electronic form through Inquest(e-reports) website. i.e. Development and implementation of an e-documentation system that may allow data acquisition, integration, repackaging and extraction of information in real time

Abstract: The progress of CSIR-NML in terms of the activities and achievements of CSIR-NML is being compiled, documented and sent to CSIR-HQS and various other stake holders e.g. Govt. Ministries at regular intervals. Also designing and compilation of the comprehensive information report of CSIR-NML is being carried out yearly. The current project proposes for the timelined creation of the aforementioned documents and maintaining all such records in electronic form. The proposed system shall enable: Multipoint entry/upload of data and information Item wise selection/integration of updated information into the form of institutional reports. Availability and extraction of these reports as and when required.

4NML/IPSG/2015/2016/2 ()2015-10-012016-09-30Ranjeet Kumar SinghR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Feasibility study of gravity based pneumatic separation of iron ore

Abstract: Wet Processing is a general practice for beneficiation of iron ore and coal. Although wet processing is efficient in beneficiation of iron ore and coal but it also introduces moisture to the level of 6-15%, which adds additional weight to transportation and adds drying cost. Rejects are in the form of slurry containing fines which cause environmental pollution. Dewatering of fines is also a costlier operation. Moreover, water may be scarce in many areas where processing plants are located. Dry beneficiation could be one of the alternate options which can address the above problems. Many studies have been carried out across the world on dry beneficiation of coal in laboratory and in some cases this is also being practiced in plant scale elsewhere in world but not in India. However, literature on dry-beneficiation of iron ore is very scanty. In view of the above, present work is being proposed to establish “the proof of concept for dry beneficiation of iron ore”. Since very limited work has been done on dry beneficiation of iron ore, it is worthwhile to evaluate the theoretical concept for dry beneficiation of iron ore using air fluidized separator. Theoretical study consists of estimation of minimum fluidization velocity for stratification of iron ore mineral, estimation of minimum vibration frequency needed for stratification, effect of design parameter on segregation mechanism and estimation of other design parameters through basic/first principle of mathematical formulation. Based on the developed theoretical concept, fabrication of a lab-scale air fluidized unit shall be undertaken. Separation efficiency of the developed unit shall also be estimated for iron ore. M N Dastur & Co.Ltd has shown interest on the proposed work in terms of some financial and technical support and for scaling up the unit if successful. The IP shall be shared between CSIR-NML and M N Dastur & Co. Ltd.

5NML/IPSG/2015/2016/50036 ()2016-04-012017-03-31Archana KumariR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: STUDIES FOR THE RECOVERY OF LANTHANIDE GROUP METALS FROM PRIMARY AND SECONDARY RESOURCES

Abstract: Rare earth metals (REMs) are vital ingredients for the advancement of modern industry and developing high technology products used in our daily lives. As a result, the worldwide demand of these metals is growing quickly and predicted to surpass the supply by 40,000 tons annually. However, their availability is declining due to export quotas imposed by the Chinese government and actions taken against illegal mining operations. Consequently, importance has been felt to expand feasible processes for rare earth recovery from various resources to meet their future requirements. Present work is focused on the development of extraction processes for the recovery of rare earth metals from primary and secondary resources. Pre-treatment and leaching studies will be carried out for optimizing different process parameters such as effect of temperature, acid concentration, time, pulp density, etc. The leach liquor generated in optimized condition will be processed further to solvent extraction studies to obtain pure metal solution. The obtained results for leaching and solvent extraction will be further validated scientifically for REMs extraction from primary (ore) and secondary (e-wastes) resources. The data obtained will be useful for scale-up studies for applied research.

6NML/IPSG/2015/2016/71924 ()2015-04-012016-03-31Beena KuamriKnowledge ManagementFull tenure(1 year)R&D ManagementInformation Management

Title: Development of an e-management system for automation of ipsg project related activities of NML (MODULE 1).

Abstract: Development and implementation of an e-project management information system for the overall management of in-house (OLP) projects of NML. The system shall enable online processes for proposals, reviewing and monitoring and reporting of OLPs. The system shall be developed in two stages i.e. 1.1 User Profiles and Proposals, 1.2. Reviewing and Monitoring 2. Reporting and Data Analytics.

7NML/IPSG/2015/2016/97692 ()2015-10-012016-09-30V.RajinikanthR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMicrostructural Characterisation

Title: Correlations of stereological parameters with mechanical properties of micro alloyed steels – Module III: Effect of phase fraction on mechanical properties.

Abstract: Acicular ferrite (AF)/ bainite (B) is often reported as the most desirable microstructure for development of high strength pipeline grade micro alloyed steels. However the mechanism of its formation is explained mostly with respect to microstructure evolution from inclusions during welding and claims are being made that it is intragranular variant of bainite. There are no proper systematic investigations towards: (i) resolving the above claim and (ii) development of desired fractions of acicular ferrite in different micro structural combinations with other micro structural constituents like retained austenite, M-A, polygonal ferrite, martensite, bainite etc., in a thermo mechanical processing schedule.. Therefore, the objective of the proposed investigation is aimed at obtaining varying fractions of acicular ferrite/bainite along with ferrite as a dual phase steel. The mechanical property of the varying microstructural fractions will be obtained by performing tensile testing and microhardness. The desired outcome is the effect of acicular ferrite/bainite fraction on the mechanical properties. The effect of strain on the acicular ferrite microstructure will be studied by processing for true strain upto ~1.2 and corresponding microstructural investigations by EBSD.

8NML/IPSG/2016/2016/15 ()2016-03-012016-08-31sivakumarR&DFast track(6 months)Surface EngineeringTribology

Title: Fretting corrosion behavior of borided Ti and 316SS in simulated body fluid

Abstract: Fretting corrosion is one of the several problems, observed in dental and load bearing bio implants. Medical grade alloys such as commercially pure titanium (CpTi) and stainless steel (316SS) are highly susceptible to fretting corrosion and leads to dissolution of metal ions, accumulation of wear debris near tissues and consequent harmful reactions. Surface coating by boriding is likely to improve the fretting corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF). In our previous module (III and IV), the boriding of CpTi and 316SS were investigated as function of different temperature and time. Coating characterizations and corrosion analysis were performed earlier. The present work is focused on the fretting corrosion behavior of borided CpTi and 316SS in SBF. Further the boriding kinetics would also be attempted. So far no such evaluation has been made on borided CpTi and 316SS to confirm their feasibility for bio implant application. [1] O. Ozdemir, M.A. Omar, M. Usta, S. Zeytin, C. Bindal, A.H. Ucisik, An investigation on boriding kinetics of AISI 316 stainless steel, Vacuum 83 (2009) 175–179 [2] I. O. zbek, B.A. Konduk, C. Bindal, A.H. Ucisi, Characterization of borided AISI 316L stainless steel implant, Vacuum 65 (2002) 521–525

9NML/IPSG/2016/2016/57666 ()2016-03-012016-08-31Yashabanta Narayan SinghabbuR&DFast track(6 months)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: A Comparison study of the electrical and corrosion properties of graphene oxide synthesized from different carbon sources.

Abstract: Graphene, a single atomic 2D-sheet of bulk graphite, is considered to be the futuristic material due to its extra ordinary property such as, high electron mobility (2,00,000 cm2 V-1 s-1) at room temperature, high thermal conductivity (~5 x 105 Wm-1 K-1), excellent mechanical property (Young’s modulus ~ 1TPa) and impermeability to most of the chemical ions. In view, it finds enormous application in fields like energy, electronics, bio-medical, material and corrosion. Indeed we have focused on the electronic application of graphene by functionalization (Module-I), modulation of sheet morphology (Module-II) , its application as sensor (Module-III) and integration of graphene on cold rolled steel for corrosion protection (Module-IV). In this module we plan to finish some parts of the experiments that are left to complete the thesis and compile all the results for thesis. Therefore, we request for extension for six month to finish the thesis successfully.

10NML/IPSG/2016/2016/75513 ()2016-02-012016-06-24R&DFast track(6 months)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: SYNTHESIS, MODIFICATION AND APPLICATION OF NANO-STRUCTURED LEAD (II) OXIDE FROM SPENT AUTOMOBILE LEAD-ACID BATTERY

Abstract: This research work will be focusing on a novel synthesis, modification and application of nano structured lead II oxide from spent automobile lead acid battery. Three different organic acids, (Acetic acid, citric acid and formic acid), sodium peroxide, sodium bromide and ethylene di-amine tetra-acetic acid will be employed as precipitating agents in the study. The leaching/precipitation of the battery paste by the reagents will be controlled by varying the concentration of the precipitating agent, lead-acid paste/precipitating agent solution ratio, reaction time, temperature of precipitation process, and the particle size. The characterization techniques that will be used are thermal analysis (Thermogravimetry (TG)/Differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electron microscopy {scanning electron microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ICPOES. Based on the synthesis, modification and Calcinations, a new electrode material will be developed for lead acid battery. This understanding will help in developing nano lead II oxide; a unique material with special properties, such as high discharge capacity, long life capacity, and large surface area, minimized reagents burden and developed environmentally friendly and easily available reagents for producing starting material nano-PbO for lead-acid battery.

11NML/IPSG/2016/2016/90648 ()2016-04-012017-03-31K K SahuR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Extraction of potash from Glauconitic Sandstone

Abstract: Potash is one of the three essential plant nutrients; the other two are nitrogen and phosphorus. Its requirement as a fertilizers have a vital role in Indian agriculture. At present, the country entire need (1.42 million tonnes) of potash is meeting through imports for which government is spending 400 million dollar. India doesnt have marine evaporative deposits, but we have huge deposits of low grade potash resources in the form of k-feldspar and glauconite. Glauconitic sandstone (3000 million tonnes, containing 4 to 6% K2O) due to its poor structural organization and the resulting susceptibility for weathering shows promising source of potash. So, the present proposal aims for development of the suitable process flow sheet for the recovery of potash from glauconite through different probable route. However, in the present module-1, detail study related to the physical and chemical properties of different type of glauconite by using characterization tools has been performed and based on the knowledge thus developed we will carry out physical & chemical beneficiation study for enrichment of K2O percentage. Further hydrometallurgical & pyro metallurgical process studies are done in next module along with production of high value added product.

12NML/IPSG/2016/2017/10 ()2016-04-012017-03-31Madan MR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyProcess Modeling

Title: Inclusion removal in steels - characterization of inclusion for different synthetic slags and to update CFD-DEM model for different inclusion removal rates

Abstract: The challenges required by the applications to improve the mechanical and other properties led to improve the cleanliness of the steel. This increasing demand in recent years for high quality steels has considerably affected the steelmaking process practices itself. The non-metallic inclusion plays an important role in the clean steel technology where it has to be minimized or be modified to remove its harmful nature by controlling their morphology, composition and size distribution. The inclusions in the steels are removed by using the synthetic slag. The mechanism of the inclusion removal from the metal to the slag phase is to be assessed in detail to enhance its usability in the treatment of the steel in Ladle. The kinetics of the inclusion removal and the flow behavior in the Ladle plays an important part in increasing the inclusion removal from the steel. A combined approach of the thermodynamics, kinetics and CFD will articulate the maximum inclusion removal with minimum of given time period. In this study, a detailed thermodynamics and kinetics is to be carried out to find best suited synthetic slag for the Al killed steels.

13NML/IPSG/2016/2017/13 ()2016-04-012017-03-31Rohit Buddham MeshramR&DFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & EnvironmentMetallurgical/Mineral Waste Utilisation

Title: Development of porous geopolymer product from industrial waste such as fly ash and calcium bearing slag

Abstract: The recent trend in building industry is use of lightweight material. This offers advantage in terms of reduced mass while maintaining adequate strength. Reduced mass not only offers less energy consumption during construction but also increases resistance against earthquake. Currently, lightweight concrete is produced from a mixture of cement, lime and sand using autoclave processing. The process is energy consuming and thus adversely affects the sustainability of building. The present work aims to develop lightweight porous geopolymer from industrial waste using ambient temperature curing. Industrial waste such as fly ash and calcium bearing slag will be used as starting material. The slag will be subjected to geopolymerisation using alkali solution. During early geopolymerisation, when calcium hydroxide forms, aluminium powder will be added, which will react with calcium hydroxide and water to form hydrogen. The hydrogen gas will foam and increase the volume of mix. Fly ash will be added as filler to give hardening and strength. Various process parameters such as percent of aluminium, time of setting, mixing time, etc will be optimized. The product will be compared with commercial available products for properties and cost.

14NML/IPSG/2016/2017/17433 ()2016-10-012017-09-30RACHIT GHOSHR&DFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & EnvironmentMetallurgical/Mineral Waste Utilisation

Title: Studies of geopolymer concrete using synergistically fly ash and bottom ash (Module-III).

Abstract: The work carried out in the last module i.e, Module-II includes pre-processing of raw material, characterizing the raw materials, studied the properties using non-destructive tests and one paper submitted titled, “Comparison of strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) for different alkalination of geopolymer concrete cured at ambient temperature.” Performance at elevated temperature is studied and draft paper titled, “Effect of elevated temperatures on flyash based geopolymer concrete and its thermal behavior.” is ready. In the current proposed module focus will be on characterizing the geopolymer concrete, continuation of durability test and characterizing after durability test of geopolymer concrete samples. Geopolymer Concrete manufactured using different quality fly ashes will be evaluated for the mechanical properties such as unit weight, setting time, workability, compressive strength, tensile strength, etc.This is aimed to study the variation in properties of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete (GPC) curing without elevated heat. It is also proposed to carry out field trials of geopolymer concrete and study its performance.

15NML/IPSG/2016/2017/1799 ()2016-04-012017-03-31CHANDRANI SARKARR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: SYNTHESIS OF THREE DIMENSIONAL HEMIPOROUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE BLOCKS AS SYNTHETIC BONE GRAFTS

Abstract: The main aim of the proposed research work is to synthesize three dimensional hemi-porous calcium phosphate block as synthetic bone graft in order to mimic the natural structure of bone. Means one half of this 3D block will be dense and another half will be porous. We will also try to improve the strength of outer dense part. Synthesized materials will be systematically characterized by using Universal Mechanical testing machine, XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, FTIR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR, TG/DTA, biocompatibility/bioactivity test.

16NML/IPSG/2016/2017/21610 (OLP 0233)2016-04-012017-03-31Parikshit MundaR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Study of erosion behavior of bainite microstructures of steels (Module-III)

Abstract: With the progress of steel development, there are recent developments like superbainitic steel as well as nano structured bainitic steel. These microstructural features are generally achieved through isothermal transformation of austenite to bainite structure in steels. Bainite is formed from austenite through a shear mode and later some carbides precipitates in diffusional mode. Bainite steels have excellent tensile strength/hardness and toughness. The unusual combination of toughness and hardness is achieved by the incorporation of certain fraction of retained austenite and control of the bainite laths shape, size and their distribution in the steel microstructure. It is the control of these factors which decides the extent of the toughness without sacrificing the strength /hardness. These factors can be controlled by suitable alloying additions and by adopting suitable heat treatment process. It is also known to a limited extent that bainite microstructure have good fatigue properties. These steels are also known for cost effectiveness because of their lean alloy content for similar properties when compared with other steels. Hence new steel with bainite-austenite microstructure may be considered to manufacture the hydro turbine underwater components in order to tackle the silt erosion problem in a better way. Since cast martensitic stainless steel such as ASTM grade A 743 CA-6NM is presently used material, experienced severe erosion due to silt and cavitation in hydro turbine systems.

17NML/IPSG/2016/2017/24378 ()2016-10-012017-09-30Lakshmi sureshR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Development of Fe based High Entropy Alloys and its characterization study for cryogenic applications.

Abstract: High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are alloys with equal or nearly equal quantities of five or more metals. These multi-principal alloys mostly form stable disordered solid solutions due to the high entropy of mixing, eliminating the formation of intermetallic phases and ordered phases, predominantly at high temperatures. For a material to serve in potential applications, the various deformation mechanisms operational at different service temperatures and conditions need to be investigated. Scope of the present work includes melting of Fe40Mn40Co10Cr10 alloy at 15Kg scale in vacuum induction furnace, forging and rough rolling of the ingot, as cast microstructural characterisation through optical, SEM and phase and rietwelt analysis through XRD, mechanical property evaluation and deformation mechanism determination. Work elements in the project will proceed in two major steps 1. Mechanical properties are evaluated through continuous tensile tests, impact testing at cryogenic and room temperature and Fracture toughness studies. 2. Deformation behaviour is assessed by conducting TEM studies on interrupted tensile test samples from different strain levels identified from continuous tensile tests at cryogenic, room and high temperatures for correlating the deformation mechanism with material properties. Motive is to establish a clear correlation between the activation of different planar defects and different modes of plasticity , tested at different temperatures.

18NML/IPSG/2016/2017/25150 ()2016-04-012017-03-31Manoj K. MohantaR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingPetrography & Process Mineralogy

Title: Search for rare metal bearing ore bodies with strategic minerals and their mineralogical characteristics

Abstract: Rare metal resource in India and its exploitation is of demand due to India’s new requirements for metals in defence and space applications. Metals like Tungsten, niobium, tantalum and rare earth element (REE) are of significance. There are poor deposits of the above stated metals in India, and no documented information on the assessment for their production viability. As these elements occur in exotic trace mineral phases and in very small size, a process mineralogical study is critical for liberation and beneficiation. The proposed research aims at exploring lithologically igneous alkaline and carbonate terrains for rare metal potential and mineralogical study so that a sample can be collected for prospective research on beneficiation in future. The research will help CSIR-NML to be pro-active organization in research for providing solution in the field of rare metal beneficiation in future national and industrial demand.

19NML/IPSG/2016/2017/25890 (OLP 0303)2016-10-012017-09-30SNEHASHISH TRIPATHYR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Study of wear and RCF mechanism in high carbon nano-pearlitic rail steel.

Abstract: The service life of rail steels is dictated by the wear and rolling contact fatigue resistance, which further depend upon the hardness and the toughness of the steel. Both of these properties being inversely dependent upon the interlamellar spacing of pearlite, the refining of pearlitic microstructure becomes an important aspect in the rail steel processing. The limit of the interlamellar spacing which can be obtained industrially is considered to be  0.1μm, the corresponding hardness and toughness of which do not provide adequate wear and RCF resistance especially under increased load and speeds. The present work therefore aims at designing of nano - pearlitic high carbon rail steel with interlamellar spacing in the range of 0.07 – 0.1μm (in the head portion) and increased volume fraction of cementite in pearlite, so as to get higher toughness and hardness. The outcome of the present work would be the alloy chemistry and optimized process parameters for producing fully pearlitic microstructure with fine interlamellar spacing and higher volume fraction of cementite (owing to the high carbon content of the steel).

20NML/IPSG/2016/2017/3 ()2016-04-012017-03-31Minati Kumari SahuR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationNon-destructive Evaluation

Title: Creep damage assessment in power plant materials using Non linear Ultrasonic Technique

Abstract: Steel pipes are the important structural components of any power plant. Operating under conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high stress, these steels have potential failure locations and limiting life for the entire plant. In addition, once a failure occurs due to creep at high temperature, the analysis team is often confronted with the question: How long will similar components last or when the next inspection be performed? To address these questions, nondestructive evaluation techniques to detect creep damage are needed. The assessment of creep damage in structures (steels) employed in the most of the industries is usually carried out by means of replica metallographic, but the several shortcomings of this method have prompted a search for alternative or complementary non-destructive techniques. Different non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as acoustic emission, infrared thermography, eddy current and linear ultrasonic measurements have been used for the measurement of different types of damage in metals In recent years, non-linear ultrasound has emerged as one of the most reliable technique for non-destructive evaluation of material property degradation, which relies on measuring the higher order harmonics generated by a damage gradient. Recent studies reveals that non-linear ultrasonic measurements are sensitive to subtle damage in a material and can be used to observe damage at an early stage and can be correlated with certain micro-structural changes leading to micro-void nucleation and growth. A greater sensitivity to damage is accessed by monitoring the material by non-linear ultrasonic technique. The objective of this research is to develop a robust experimental procedure to reliably measure the acoustic non linearity parameter using longitudinal waves in both through transmission and pulse echo modes and their correlation with micro structural and mechanical properties in power plant materials to study: i.The effect of tempering temperature in P92 steel ii. Evaluation of different stages of creep damage in P92 steel and Inconnel 600 (Inconnel 600 for creep void and NLU parameter correlation)

21NML/IPSG/2016/2017/39577 ()2016-04-012017-03-31Ajit kumar swainR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Evaluation of breakage parameters of ore/rock for ball mill simulation and scale up

Abstract: Ball Mills are the most common form of tumbling mill, used as primary grinding mills with feed up to 20mm, as well as secondary/tertiary and regrinding mill operation with fine feed and product. The mill efficiency depends upon mill design, mill parameters and material specific parameters such as selection function and breakage distribution function. As a continuous mill operation in optimum condition requires systematic corrective measures, the mills are operated with simulation software with feedback mechanism. These software require ore-dependent and machine dependent model parameters. The proposed research aims at generating data base for material parameters for ore/rock, which will be applied for the optimized operation of existing ball mill (1TPH) in MNP Division.

22NML/IPSG/2016/2017/4 ()2016-04-012017-03-31ASISH KUMAR DATTAR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMechanical Behaviour of Materials

Title: Optimization of Hysteretic Dissipation Energy of Moment Resistant Frame for High Rise Steel Structures against Earthquake Excitations for Different Grades of High Tensile Steels: Module II

Abstract: The proposed work is an attempt for criteria and requirements for providing the tall steel structures with necessary ductility. The outcome will be of use to Structural /Metallurgical Engineers for comprehensive investigation into the mechanics of deformation of high rise structural components in respect of strength and stiffness deterioration, ductile moment resistant steel frame connections. The same can meet all the requirements and can serve as a base for more sophisticated generation schemes for direct control on the collapse of the structure and checking if the inelastic deformations imposed by the earthquake to the structural members are compatible with their ductility capacity. The ability of structural steel as a base material to dissipate large amount of seismic energy through inelastic deformations makes steel a material ideally suited for structures undergoing seismic excitations. Steel hardens under cyclic loading and gains strength as the number of cycles and the deformation amplitude increase, resulting in large hysteretic loop. The energy needed to plastically elongate or shorten a steel specimen can be calculated as the product of the plastic force times the plastic displacement and is called the hysteretic energy. Unlike kinetic and strain energy, hysteretic energy is a non-recoverable dissipated energy. The objective of the present work is to develop an intuitive understanding of the response and behavior of ductile moment resistant steel frame connections due to earthquake load. The emphasis is on representation of the element behavior in a standard nonlinear analysis program (including the both geometric non-linearity and material non-linearity), on evaluation of the interaction between different elements at a typical connection. Microstructural characterization of the deformed specimens will be studied by the onset of strength and stiffness deterioration associated with large values of strain which are typically higher than those expected in a severe earthquake.

23NML/IPSG/2016/2017/40250 ()2016-04-012017-03-31Ammasi AR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyAgglomeration

Title: Study the effect of different carbon source in hematite ore pelletization to utilize the carbon rich waste materials.

Abstract: The energy consumption of pelletising of hematite ore is greater than that of magnetite ore pellet due to the absence of exothermic heat of reaction. A very high induration temperature (say 1325oC) is required to obtain the sufficient strength of fired hematite pellets due to absence of recrystallization and crystal growth of hematite until 1300-1350oC. A huge amount of external energy is required for thermal hardening of hematite ore pellet during induration process. The coal is added to pellet mix to reduce the fuel consumption in pelletization plant. However, the excessive addition of carbon in pelletisation of hematite leads to degrade the pellet quality. Burning behaviour also is a key controlling factor of pellet character because formation of different ratio of CO2 and CO during reactions provide different amount of heat. Ratio of CO2 and CO formation may depend upon partial pressure of oxygen and types of carbon source etc.. While formation of CO2 provides better exothermic heat, formation of CO promotes reduction in pellet and lowers in-situ heat. Therefore, with optimization of carbon it is very imperative to study the better utilization of carbon for in-situ heat generation and minimizing the reduction of pellet. So far, hardly any studies on effect of pO2 on roasting behaviour of Fe2O3 and burning behaviour of different type of coal in pellet is reported. Therefore, in present study the induration behaviour of iron oxide pellet in presence of different source of carbon, their optimization and burning characteristic in induration strand and effect of pO2 on roasting behaviour of Fe2O3 to avail the maximum amount of insitu heat from the carbon which will helps in reducing external energy consumption.

24NML/IPSG/2016/2017/4269 ()2016-10-012017-09-30Premkumar MurugaiyanR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Development of High Induction amorphous based soft magnetic alloys

Abstract: Amorphous based Electrical steels are new class of soft magnetic materials with high electrical resistivity, low coercivity, low core loss and finds extensive applications as core material (transformers), stators motors, generators), Magneto static shielding, choke coils, actuators etc. The drawback of amorphous based material is its low magnetic induction (Bs) due to alloying additions for amorphous structure stabilization. The present investigation is aimed at alloy development, containing ferromagnetic Fe as base element in the range 80-85 atomic%. The present study involves in series of alloy modifications targeting optimal ratio of metalloid, grain growth inhibitor, nucleating elements and achieving magnetic induction greater than 1.5Tesla and good DC soft magnetic properties. The Alloy development also envisages partial crystallization and investigate the nanocrystalline effect on magnetization process. The obtained structural and soft magnetic results will be formulated in Random Anisotropy Model (RAM) to understand the compliance of developed alloys with existing model.

25NML/IPSG/2016/2017/4424 ()2016-04-012017-03-31SUMANTA BAGUIR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMechanical Behaviour of Materials

Title: Creep and creep crack growth behavior of a Nickel base alloy [Module-II]

Abstract: Alloy 617 (Ni-22Cr-12Co-9Mo) is primarily solid-solution strengthened nickel base superalloy. It is one of most promising material for an advanced ultra-super critical (A-USC) fossil fuel fired boiler for its superior mechanical properties, especially creep resistance. Alloy 617 is planned to use around 700-750°C and >24 MPa pressure in internal piping of different section of A-USC boiler. Hence, studies on deformation behavior of Alloy 617 due to creep between 650-800°C is very much essential. Intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) takes part a critical role in boiler to transfer heat from primary reactor to the relatively cold fluid in secondary reactor. Temperature difference/gradient in primary and secondary legs of IHX often responsible for crack initiation source at critical location and propagate to cause failure diminishing the expected creep rupture life of Alloy 617. Similar situation may occur where failure originates at a stress concentration or at pre-existing defects in the component. Below sub-creep temperature regime, conventional fracture mechanics approach for predicting crack growth behavior under elastic or elastic-plastic condition is well established. Whereas, in creep temperature regime, crack tip parameter must take into account time dependent creep deformation. Hence, creep crack growth behavior of Alloy 617 is equally important to understand failure due to creep resulting from a localized damage. Alloy 617 comprises equiaxed grain of gamma phase, annealing twins, uniformly distributed primary carbides (MC, M2C-type) within the grain and secondary carbides (M23C6-type) within the grain and along the grain boundaries. However, proportion of theses phases changes with thermal exposure. Damage accumulated due to creep in bulk material and localized region (due to presence of a crack) needs quantification for better understanding of high temperature deformation behavior of Alloy 617. Though solid solution strengthening is dominant in Alloy 617, other strengthening mechanism are also important and needs to be identified. The prime objective of this research work in Module II is to identify bulk creep deformation mechanism of Alloy 617 at various stress ranges between 650-800°C. In later modules, investigation will be carried out to determine the effect of pre-existing crack on creep/design life. Quantification of damage in terms of dislocation density measurement, creep void measurement etc. and quantification of phases will be determined in final stages.

26NML/IPSG/2016/2017/47754 ()2016-10-012017-09-30BIRAJ KUMAR SAHOOR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Development of Medium Mn, high Al low density high strength steel- MODULE 1

Abstract: There is a growing demand form the automotive sector for high strength light weight steel. High Mn(25-30%) and high Al(12-14%) TWIP or SIMPLEX steels having high strength and formability with lower density have been developed but owing to high Mn content, it adds hugely to the cost. It also poses manufacturing problems at industrial scale and thus not produced commercially in large scale. The density of automotive grade steel is around 7.8g/cc but with every 1% addition of Al there is a decrease in density of 1.3%. So, here lies a scope to develop a high strength steel with high Al in range of 8-12% but keeping the Mn content limited in the range of 3-7%. With such steel, a density of 6.8-7.0 g/cc (i.e. ~10% reduction in density) can be achieved. The proposal aims to develop such steel by suitable alloy design and critically controlling the subsequent thermo-mechanical processing. The microstructure of the developed steel would be combination of ferrite, austenite with fine scale precipitation of K-carbide(FeMn)3AlC and/or B2 ordered phases(FeMnAl). The inter-critical annealing schedule after cold rolling plays a significant role for the development of the above microstructure. The precipitation of brittle intermetallics would be controlled to obtain very fine nano scale precipitation such that it would add to the strength, rather deteriorating the properties. The proposal in the module-1, aims to investigate and understand the phase transformation behavior of the alloy, the kinetics of solute (C, Mn) partitioning during inter-critical annealing, the precipitation behavior of the intermetallics and the subsequent microstructure evolution.

27NML/IPSG/2016/2017/48907 ()2016-04-012017-03-31abhishek KumarR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Chemical aided magnetic separation of iron ore fines.

Abstract: Iron ore tailings containing around 45 - 52% Fe are generated from the iron ore washing plants and are disposed as slimes into tailing ponds without any further utility. This causes huge loss of iron values as well as issues related to environmental problems. Several beneficiation techniques have been tried from time to time which involves magnetic separation as one of the unit operation in their process flowsheet in order to reduce the gangue so that the beneficiated products could be effectively used. While subjecting these tailings to magnetic separation like WHIMS the recovery of iron bearing mineral particles are not satisfactory because of presence of significant proportion of ultrafines in the feed/slimes and their magnetic properties.Further slime coating affects selectivity of separation. So this project aims at enhancing the recovery of ultrafine iron bearing values that are reporting to the reject stream. It is proposed to do magnetic separation by coating of iron bearing minerals with a ferromagnetic material.Further study can be done to analyze the effect of dispersants and flocculants on magnetic separation with vertical pulsating mechanism. Properties of mineral particles can be altered by coating it with some chemicals so that it can respond to the magnetic field it is being subjected to. The Study will lead to basic understanding of problem of magnetic separation of fine particles and will result in development of suitable process/product for enhance recovery of iron values with industrial relevance.

28NML/IPSG/2016/2017/50525 ()2016-04-012017-03-31Dr Shobhana DeyR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingPetrography & Process Mineralogy

Title: Search for rare metal bearing ore bodies with strategic minerals and their mineralogical characteristics

Abstract: Rare metal resource in India and its exploitation is of demand due to India’s new requirements for metals in defence and space applications. Metals like Tungsten, niobium, tantalum and rare earth element (REE) are of significance. There are poor deposits of the above stated metals in India, and no documented information on the assessment for their production viability. As these elements occur in exotic trace mineral phases and in very small size, a process mineralogical study is critical for liberation and beneficiation. The proposed research aims at exploring lithologically igneous alkaline and carbonate terrains for rare metal potential and mineralogical study so that a sample can be collected for prospective research on beneficiation in future. The research will help CSIR-NML to be pro-active organization in research for providing solution in the field of rare metal beneficiation in future national and industrial demand.

29NML/IPSG/2016/2017/52336 ()2016-10-012017-09-30BIRAJ KUMAR SAHOOR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Development of Medium Mn, high Al low density high strength steel- MODULE 1

Abstract: There is a growing demand form the automotive sector for high strength light weight steel. High Mn(25-30%) and high Al(12-14%) TWIP or SIMPLEX steels having high strength and formability with lower density have been developed but owing to high Mn content, it adds hugely to the cost. It also poses manufacturing problems at industrial scale and thus not produced commercially in large scale. The density of automotive grade steel is around 7.8g/cc but with every 1% addition of Al there is a decrease in density of 1.3%. So, here lies a scope to develop a high strength steel with high Al in range of 8-12% but keeping the Mn content limited in the range of 3-7%. With such steel, a density of 6.8-7.0 g/cc (i.e. ~10% reduction in density) can be achieved. The proposal aims to develop such steel by suitable alloy design and critically controlling the subsequent thermo-mechanical processing. The microstructure of the developed steel would be combination of ferrite, austenite with fine scale precipitation of K-carbide(FeMn)3AlC and/or B2 ordered phases(FeMnAl). The inter-critical annealing schedule after cold rolling plays a significant role for the development of the above microstructure. The precipitation of brittle intermetallics would be controlled to obtain very fine nano scale precipitation such that it would add to the strength, rather deteriorating the properties. The proposal in the module-1, aims to investigate and understand the phase transformation behavior of the alloy, the kinetics of solute (C, Mn) partitioning during inter-critical annealing, the precipitation behavior of the intermetallics and the subsequent microstructure evolution.

30NML/IPSG/2016/2017/58609 ()2016-04-012017-03-31CHANDRANI SARKARR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: SYNTHESIS OF THREE DIMENSIONAL HEMI-POROUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE BLOCKS AS SYNTHETIC BONE GRAFT

Abstract: The main aim of the proposed research work is to synthesize three dimensional hemi-porous calcium phosphate block as synthetic bone graft in order to mimic the natural structure of bone. Means one half of this 3D block will be dense and another half will be porous. We will also try to improve the strength of outer dense part. Synthesized materials will be systematically characterized by using Universal Mechanical testing machine, XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, FTIR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR, TG/DTA, biocompatibility/bioactivity test.

31NML/IPSG/2016/2017/59834 ()2016-04-012017-03-31Murugesan A PR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringMetal Forming

Title: Effect of deformation temperature on micro structures of molybdenum added low carbon micro alloyed steel( Phase 2)

Abstract: Line pipe steels, based on API standard, up to strength level of X70 grade are commercially made and being extensively used as structural material in oil and petroleum industries due to their excellent mechanical properties, like tensile strength, toughness and weldability. Although efforts have been made at industrial as well as laboratory level to develop materials beyond the strength level of X70, there are still no defined rule for composition design and suitable thermo-mechanical controlled processing (TMCP) schedule. The role of addition of Molybdenum (Mo) in low carbon micro-alloyed steel, under influence of deformation schedule around Tnr (Non recrysllaization temperature) on development of beneficial microstructures (bainite, acicular ferrite), flow properties and recrystallization behavior of low carbon micro-alloyed steel, has been studied in last module. Multi-hit compression test was used to determine the critical temperatures of steel including Tnr, Ar3 and Ar1 temperatures. Molybdenum added steel showed the reduction of Ar3 temperature from 830 ° C to 758° C with insignificant difference in Tnr temperature i. e. ~1040 °C in most cases. In Nb-Ti-Mo steels, reduction in Ar3 temperatures results in refined grains and thus increasing the strengthening and toughness of steel than the steel have relatively higher Ar3 temperature where finish deformation is carried out. Applying proper finish rolling strategy is essential to generate desired microstructural product since two steels show different Ar3 temperature. Therefore, finish deformation temperature below Tnr and cooling rate in addition to the deformation schedule must be carefully chosen to get such a desired final microstructure. The important objective of present module is to study the Effect of finish deformation temperature and cooling rate on microstructures of two steels, with and without Molybdenum.

32NML/IPSG/2016/2017/6 ()2016-04-012017-03-31Aarti KumariR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Investigation on Hydro and Electro-chemical dissolution of scrap magnets of wind turbines for the recovery of rare earth metals and other valuable products.

Abstract: NdFeB magnets have wide application in wind turbines due to its advanced magnetic properties. This magnet contains mainly about 25% of neodymium and 65% of iron. Due to increasing demand of rare earth metals, end-of-life scrap magnets have emerged as an extremely important secondary resource for the recovery of rare earth metals. The scrap magnet (i.e NdFeB) from wind turbines have been targeted for the present study. NdFeB magnets have surface flux density of about 0.4T. Therefore generally magnet is demagnetized at the initial stage of separation process and consecutively leaching is carried out. But this process consumes large amount of acids; and iron is rarely recovered in the usable form. After observing the research gap in this area, the project has been divided in three modules. In the first module, it is aimed to explore the effect of roasting on selective leaching of neodymium after complete characterization and demagnetization study of scrap magnet of wind turbines. The present study is intended to recover the neodymium from the scrap magnet by consuming lesser amount of acid/chemicals and obtaining iron in the usable form in the residue. And at last precipitation/SX will be carried out for the recovery of high pure rare earth compounds from leach liquor. In the second module, it is aimed to study the effect of pressure on chemical dissolution of rare earth metals from scrap magnet. It is expected to recover neodymium in the leach liquor at very low concentration of acid and high value iron oxide products by pressure leaching. In the third module, the idea is to study the feasibility for electrochemical dissolution of rare earth from scrap NdFeB magnet. Theoretically, difference in the reduction potential of rare earth element i.e REE (Nd) and non-REE (Fe) is large, ~ 1.8 which drives the idea for selective electrochemical dissolution of rare earth metal from scrap magnet. Electrochemical dissolution can offer the additional advantage of process control with potential (E) and current density in addition to the pH, which can play a major role for selective recovery. Apart from that expensive pre-treatment steps such as demagnetization or roasting can be avoided by direct electrochemical dissolution of scrap. Therefore, the aim of this module is to investigate the various aspect of electrochemical dissolution process of NdFeB magnet which has not been exposed yet. Along with that thermodynamic and kinetic study will be carried out for the above modules.

33NML/IPSG/2016/2017/66315 ()2016-09-012017-08-31RAJESH K MINJR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyPyrometallurgy

Title: Development of a process to produce Pre-reduced Ferro chromium pellets in vertical kiln furnace

Abstract: The production of high carbon ferro chromium ferro alloy in sub-merged arc furnace is very high energy intensive process. The specific power consumption for the production of high carbon ferro chromium is approximately 5000 kWH/ton. The valuable electrical power energy is used for the production of ferro alloy and also carbon emission is very high during power generation. Roughly 16-18 % of heat energy is available in the form of electrical power to produce ferro alloy. Rest 82-85% heat is lost due to power generation, transmission loss and power efficiency of the Submerged arc furnace. The effort to use coal energy directly for the pre reduction of chromite ore pellets in vertical kiln furnace. The efficiency of vertical kiln furnace is fairly high compared to all type of metallurgical furnace. The efficiency of vertical kiln furnace is depend on height, mode of operation and operation parameters. The scheme of the project is as follows: (a) Grinding and crushing of chromite ore (b) Characterization of raw materials (c) pre-reduction of chromite ore pellets (d) Smelting of Pre-reduced pellet (e) Techno economical feasibility study

34NML/IPSG/2016/2017/68361 (OLP 0310)2016-11-172017-11-16Adeleke Adekunle AkanniR&DFull tenure(1 year)Resource, Energy & EnvironmentGreen Metallurgical Technologies

Title: Development of Hybrid Fuel Briquette from Lean Grade Coal and Torrefied Lignocellulosic Woody Biomass

Abstract: The present study is aimed at developing hybrid fuel briquette from lean grade coal and torrefied Lignocellulosic Woody Biomass (LWB). Coal samples were collected from Okaba (established mine: N07 30´ E07 42´) and Odagbo (virgin mine: N06 12´ E06 28´) fields in Kogi State, Nigeria. Tectona grandis (Teak wood) and Gmelina arborea (Melina wood) were collected from Agbamu village farm (N08 7ʹ E04 52ʹ) in Kwara State, Nigeria. Characterization of coal and LWB will be carried out: there is no literacy on the type, properties and behavior of coal from Odagbo field. LWB are hydrophilic in nature, contains low energy density and high volatile matter thus, torrefaction process will be used to improve the energy content, reduce the volatile matters and make it hydrophobic. For torrefaction process, parameters such as torrefaction temperature (TT), resident time (RT) and particles sizes (PS) would be varied to obtain optimum char yield and properties from LWB. Characterization of torrefied LWB (TLWB) would be carried out and optimum parameters would then be used for torrefaction of two LWB. The output will be densified with coal. Densification will be carried out under various conditions such as hybrid ratio, pressure, binding agent and die temperature. Information catalogue for coal in Odagbo field would be developed. Optimized parameters for torrefaction process of LWB will be obtained. Hybrid fuels with little or no combustion effluents such SOx NOx, and COx is expected at the end of densification process. Hybrid fuel briquettes with high energy density, good mechanical properties such as low crack formation, hardness, compressive strength and hydrophobic in nature would be developed. Optimized process parameters for densification of coal and torrefied woody biomass would be obtained.

35NML/IPSG/2016/2017/68509 ()2016-04-012017-03-31Dr R.K SahuR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Development of graphene oxide based alcohol breath sensor

Abstract: Many vehicle accidents happen because of the consumption of alcohol beverages by the driver. Thus, drunk driving is a major issue almost in all countries. It is reported that around 70% of road accidents in India is due to the drunken driving. In view of the prevention of drunken caused accidents, alcohol breath analyzer should be fitted / installed near the driver’s seat of a vehicle, in which the ignition system of the vehicle will be deactivated automatically when it crosses the permit limit of alcohol (0.08 mg / L as per the government act). To accomplish the objective, this project focuses to develop a high sensitive alcohol breath sensor working at room temperature.

36NML/IPSG/2016/2017/7 ()2016-04-012017-03-31Ashok KR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyPyrometallurgy

Title: Control & Analysis of Inclusions in Electrical Steel – Module 2

Abstract: Residual non-metallic inclusion present in liquid steel are one of the causes of process interruptions during transfer of liquid steel, solidification, post processing of solidified steel and also ultimately affects the end properties. Specific to high silicon steel, presence of non-metallic inclusions mostly annoys its performance during magnetization and demagnetization process via, creating barkhaunsen noise. Controlling non-metallic inclusions with respect to size, morphology and chemical composition is highly essential to produce extra clean electrical steel. Therefore, one of the major objectives of this module is to perform special refining treatment to control the non-metallic inclusion during liquid steel processing and followed by critical analyses to assess the cleanliness of steel.

37NML/IPSG/2016/2017/7020 ()2016-04-012017-03-31Pratima MeshramR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Extraction and separation of valuable metals from spent batteries(Metal Separation & thesis writing)

Abstract: The cathodic material of spent LIBs containing Li, Co, Mn and Ni, can be treated by sulphuric acid leaching in the presence of sodium bisulphite as a reducing agent. With 1 M H2SO4 and 0.075 M NaHSO3 as reducing agent ~96.7% Li, 91.6% Co, 96.4% Ni and 87.9% Mn were recovered in 4 h at 368 K and a pulp density of 20 g/L. From the leach liquor, >98% cobalt is recovered as cobalt oxalate powder by precipitation method. MnCO3, NiCO3 and Li2CO3 were almost quantitatively precipitated from the cobalt depleted filtrate. By this process, almost complete lithium can be recovered in the form of carbonate. With process intensification we could selectively recover different metals from the cathode active material of LIBs. Nickel-metal hydride batteries (Ni-MH) contain not only the base metals, but valuable rare earth metals (REMs) viz. La, Sm, Nd, Pr and Ce as well. To recover the valuable metals present in this battery, leaching of NiMH is carried out with H2SO4 and the conditions for the leaching of base & REMs from the spent batteries were optimized. The maximum dissolution of Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn & REs was found to be 91.6, 97.8, 65.5, 93.5, 99.2% and 90.2% respectively in a single stage under the optimum conditions comprising of 2 M H2SO4, 100 g/L pulp density and 348 K temperature after 120 min of leaching. Further, separation of different metals from leach liquors of LIBs as well as NiMH using SX and IX is being planned in next module.

38NML/IPSG/2016/2017/73713 ()2016-04-012017-03-31Beena KuamriKnowledge ManagementFull tenure(1 year)R&D ManagementInformation Management

Title: Development of an e-management system for automation of ipsg project related activities of NML (Module II)

Abstract: Development and implementation of an e-project management information system for the overall management of in-house (OLP) projects of NML. The system shall enable online processes for proposals, reviewing and monitoring and reporting of OLPs. The system shall be developed in two stages i.e. 1.1 User Profiles and Proposals, 1.2. Reviewing and Monitoring 2. Reporting and Data Analytics. Out of the two modules 1.1 User Profiles and Proposals and 1.2. Reviewing are completed in the first phase and this proposal is for the development of the second module i.e. Monitoring, Reporting and Data Analytics.

39NML/IPSG/2016/2017/78067 ()2016-09-012017-10-31Minal ShahR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Study on Evolution of low temperature nanobainitic steel-Module 1

Abstract: With the increasing demand on energy saving, it is of necessity to develop high performance low cost steels having extraordinary high strength along with good toughness. The possibility of obtaining steels with nano size laths (20-50nm) of bainite by isothermal transformation treatment at low temperature is set forth. Such steel requires (1) Increasing the driving force for the transformation,(2) lowering of the transformation temperature to refine the bainitic microstructure,(3) acceleration of the transformation speed and (4) Lowering the Ms temperature. Addition of high 0.8-1.2 wt% of carbon enable to form nanobainite by lowering the Bs temperature and Ms temperature, but such high carbon alloys has extremely slow kinetics. In this respect detail work has to be done to accelerate the kinetic of bainitic transformation by processing parameters and economical alloying elements. Low carbon nano bainite alloys has to be developed with much greater kinetics so that the product can be used in wear resistance and other application without facing the problem of weldability. Role of Aluminium has to be studied on kinetics and Bs temperature on nanobainitic transformation so as to produce light weight high strength steels for wear and other applications.

40NML/IPSG/2016/2017/8 ()2016-03-012017-02-28charu singhR&DFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringCorrosion

Title: Project Title: Surface properties enhancement of Mg alloys by wet deposition method Module-II: Corrosion study of AZ91 and AZ31 Magnesium alloy and protection by Electroplating in aqueous Ni bath

Abstract: Proposal aims at to enhance the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy by nickel coating using electroplating option. Magnesium is very reactive and corrodes preferably in deposition bath which makes it difficult to plate. This is further complicated by the secondary phases present as they cause the galvanic corrosion at very high rate. The research will also be carried to develop suitable pretreatment for the magnesium surface so that the dissolution can be controlled during subsequent electroplating in nickel bath in order to obtain the coating on the surface. The suitability of the process shall be established by nickel deposition on pretreated magnesium surface and their corrosion behavior. The effects of secondary phases in magnesium alloy on deposition shall also be studied. The work will be initiated with the corrosion characterization and influence of heat treatments on the performance of magnesium alloys.

41NML/IPSG/2016/2017/80913 ()2016-10-012017-09-30Dr. K. L. SahooR&DFull tenure(1 year)OthersCSIR-800

Title: Coke based brass melting furnace for brass and bell metal artisans of West Bengal and Odisha.

Abstract: In the previous year (2015-16) through the project OLP-0249, CSIR-NML has transferred 2 number of energy efficient brass melting technology to (i) Yugantar Bharati, Ranchi, Jharkhand (In October 2015) and (ii) West Bengal Khadi & Village Industries Board, MSME & T Dept. Govt. of W.B (In January 2016).Subsequently, CSIR-NML installed and commissioned three furnaces last year at three different places, namely (i) Namkum, Ranchi, (ii) Bikna, Bankura Dist. (iii) Dariapur, Burdwan Dist. CSIR-NML also conducted several training cum demonstration programme to the artisans and District Information centre officials. They have shown their interest for the know-how. In this project it is proposed to transfer technology to other organization and to install more number of furnaces in West Bengal and Odisha. It is also proposed to study the feasibility of application of know-how in other districts of Odisha, mainly in Khurda district and other districts of West Bengal.

42NML/IPSG/2016/2017/82834 ()2016-10-012017-09-30Surla RameshR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMechanical Behaviour of Materials

Title: In-line Monitoring Of Fatigue Crack Propagation Using Ultrasonic Phased Array Technique

Abstract: The present project attempts for in-line monitoring and measurement of the fatigue crack growth in a three point bending specimen. Conventionally, the growth measured by crack mouth opening method. which does not provide any volumetric information. The ultrasonic phased array technique gives the information about the complete volumetric crack profile. The technique has been used offline by many workers. In the present study, the ultrasonic phased array technique will be used for in situ evaluation of fatigue crack growth in structural steel.

43NML/IPSG/2016/2017/93987 ()2016-10-012017-09-30SUNIL KUMARR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingProcess Modeling

Title: Molecular dynamic simulation to characterize rapid solidification behavior and structure-property functionality of AluminiumMagnesium alloy

Abstract: Al-alloys are well known for their use as light-weight components in engineering applications, particularly within the automotive industries, due to their high wear resistance and low thermal expansion. Rapid solidification processing (RSP) affects the microstructure and phase equilibrium and offers the following advantages, namely, refinement of microstructure, extension of solid solubility, increased chemical homogeneity, precipitation of non-equilibrium crystalline phases and formation of amorphous phases. A molecular dynamic (MD) simulation model will be developed based on Newtonian mechanics and Velocity-Verlet algorithm to study of dynamic behavior atomic structure of Al-Mg system during RSP. Depending upon the simulation environment and computational resources, different numbers of atoms will be considered in a 3-D simulation box with periodic boundary conditions. The structure and properties of the system will be examined using radial distribution function (RDF) and mean square distance (MSD) of Al-Mg atomistic system as function of temperature at different cooling rates during RSP.

44NML/IPSG/2016/2017/94382 ()2016-10-012017-09-30V.RajinikanthR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMicrostructural Characterisation

Title: Correlation of stereological parameters with mechanical properties of micro alloyed steels: Module IV: Microstructure , Texture and Mechanical property evolution.

Abstract: Acicular ferrite (AF)/ bainite (B) is often reported as the most desirable microstructure for development of high strength pipeline grade micro alloyed steels. However the mechanism of its formation is explained mostly with respect to microstructure evolution from inclusions during welding and claims are being made that it is intragranular variant of bainite. There are no proper systematic investigations towards: (i) resolving the above claim and (ii) development of desired fractions of acicular ferrite in different micro structural combinations with other micro structural constituents like retained austenite, M-A, polygonal ferrite, martensite, bainite etc., in a thermo mechanical processing schedule. Therefore, the objective of the proposed investigation is aimed at Quantifying the microstructural constituents including texture evolution and correlate it to the processing conditions and mechanical properties of the given microalloyed steel. The desired outcome is the effect of microstructural constituents on the mechanical properties. The microstructure will be evaluated in detail based on EBSD and TEM studies. The misorientation angle distribution will be used as a basis for defining the acicular ferrite microstructure based on results from previous module.

45NML/IPSG/2016/2017/99235 ()2016-10-012017-09-30Dr. Shantanu V. MadgeR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAlloy Development

Title: Solidification texture in electrical steels.

Abstract: Electrical steels (Fe-Si) are important for industrial applications (transformers, motors, generators) arising from their soft magnetic properties, and this is an area of current interest to CSIR-NML. The current project will target texture development in relatively novel processing routes like thin strip and planar flow casting (or melt-spinning) -- processes already used for non-oriented (CRNO) grades of electrical steels. Preliminary results have shown the formation of <100> fiber texture in as-cast thin sheets, expected to lead to superior magnetic properties than CRNO grades. We will now focus on (1) finding whether the <100> texture can be further enhanced through minor alloying additions to the steel; (2) fabrication of larger foils of electrical steels, so that magnetic properties can be correctly measured and compared with existing grades; (3) investigating the stability of the microstructure (hence properties) against low-temperature ageing.

46NML/IPSG/2017/2017/51153 (OLP 0306)2017-04-012017-09-30D.C.SauR&DFast track(6 months)Extractive MetallurgyPyrometallurgy

Title: Scale up of the developed process for conversion of hematite fines to magnetite using CNG (compressed natural gas)

Abstract: High purity hematite is generated during the pickling operation at Tata Steel. There is a need to convert it into a value added product. A simple process which can be easily adopted in the plant and use of wastes streams is desirable. To develop a process to convert hematite powder into magnetite (Fe3O4) suitable for application as heavy media application. The magnetite (Fe3O4) system has become of long-standing interest due to its rich variety of application in the industry as pigment, precursor for magnetic field and heavy media separation agent. It is of great interest to study alternative methods of synthesis to reduce costs of preparation and improve the rate and quality of the final products. Several chemical methods have been proposed to synthesize magnetite. The direct reduction of hematite by gaseous reductants is an industrially important reaction. The reaction proceeds through the formation of Fe3O4 if the temperature is below 5750C since wustite phase is unstable under these conditions. In this work, we will develop a process at 10 kg scale for the conversion of hematite to magnetite of 90 % or more purity using CNG in a gas fired reactor.

47NML/IPSG/2017/2017/66240 (OLP 0307)2017-04-012017-09-30Manoj KumarR&DFast track(6 months)Extractive MetallurgyPyrometallurgy

Title: Improvement in Development of Magnesium Metal Production Technology and DPR preparation for scale up pilot plant for industrial application.

Abstract: Magnesium is the lightest structural metal which has applications in aerospace, automotive, de-sulfurization of steel etc. including the strategic applications in defence and atomic energy. CSIR-NML has been undergoing on the development of the Electro-thermal batch technology for producing sponge magnesium 35-40 kg in one batch from the reduction of calcined dolomite by ferro-silicon at a temperature of 1500-1600C in the presence of calcined bauxite under a vacuum of 10-20 mbar under 12th FYP. Dolomite is calcined at a temperature of 1200-1300C in a available diesel fired Rotary Kiln. Ratio of calcined dolomite, ferro-silicon and bauxite is used in the ratio of 5.6:1:1 to produce the sponge magnesium. The progress on the development of Electro-thermal batch Mg-producing technology consists of processing the raw material at a pilot scale of 300-450 kg per batch producing ~40kg sponge Mg. As of now, 17 campaigns have been carried out towards the pilot plant standardization with respect to the functioning of each and every component and establishing of the process parameters at the mentioned scale, process parameters optimization, fine tuning of the process parameters with improved yield and purity etc. The 18th Campaign is underway. At this stage of pilot scale development it requires reproducibility of results and investigation on still higher rate of charging raw material more than13.5kg/h with higher power feeding rate during the reproducibility of the campaigns to further lowering of the power consumption and higher productivity. In view of the mentioned objectives it is proposed to carry out 5 campaigns more campaigns including detailed project report (DPR) preparation for processing the next higher pilot scale of 1T raw material/120kg Mg working in semi-continuous mode with the end product in the form of billets after flux refining and casting.

48NML/IPSG/2017/2017/71874 ()2017-04-012017-08-31KRISHNA KUMARR&DFast track(6 months)Extractive MetallurgyPyrometallurgy

Title: Technology development for flux refining of sponge magnesium at 1 kg scale

Abstract: Magnesium is lightest structural metal with strategic importance having a pyrophoric nature. Globally, more than 80% Mg is supplied by China through Pidgeon process technology, which may not be environmentally sustainable for long terms because of 40-44kg CO2 generation per kg Mg. The Electrothermal batch process developed during 12th FYP at CSIR-NML at a pilot scale of 300-450kg raw material/40 kg Mg is a promising technology for magnesium metal production with better features. This is based on liquid state silicothermic reduction of calcined dolomite by ferrosilicon as reductant in a molten slag pool of oxides, at a temperature of 1500-1600 0C. The crowns/sponge magnesium obtained from this process are of purity 90-99% depending on the location in the condenser-crucible with major impurities as MgO and the remaining impurities to the extent of 0.5 to 2.0% as Ca, Si, Al, C, O. Flux refining, being an industrially lucrative option, is a way to refine this crown/sponge Mg to yield refined Mg-metal. Basically, flux mix of MgCl2-KCl-BaCl2-CaF2 is used in industries, whose composition is guarded. For refining investigation, the magnesium content of sponge magnesium, obtained from the various campaigns at pilot plant, is required to be refined with the various combinations of flux components to get the maximum purity. Moreover, the kinetics of refining, quantity of flux for the wetting of oxides and impurities, time and stirring etc. at a scale of 500-1000 g are required to be optimized. Experiments will be carried out in a available resistance furnace. The database generated will be used in magnesium production technology development (MPT) to get the end product as refined magnesium.

49NML/IPSG/2017/2018/16875 (OLP 0316)2017-04-012018-03-31RajatR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Processing of Alloy Powders through Rapid solidification Routes for their suitability in Additive Manufacturing

Abstract: In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on advanced materials processing through additive manufacturing. This help in developing critical component of complex design with near net shape casting. In most of the cases, the standard steel powders (like 304 SS, 316SS) are used for designing the components. Attempts are being made to develop powder of newer alloy composition and utilize those for making components through additive manufacturing. Earlier CSIR-NML developed many high glass forming ability (GFA) alloys with improved properties. However, due to high cooling rate (~ 103 to 106 K/s, these alloys are restricted to thin ribbon or rods of smaller diameter or very small components (~ mm in size). In contrast, the processing technique like Additive Manufacturing using alloy powders with high GFA can help in developing critical components of bigger size and shape. The present project will aim to prepare powders of bulk metallic glass composition with the existing facility at CSIR-NML and feasibility of making a simple component out of those powders through additive manufacturing with the facility available at ARCI, Hyderabad or somewhere else. If it is possible to make a component out of the powder of bulk metallic glass composition it will be interesting to see whether the component is retaining the GFA during selective laser melting and thereby the mechanical and functional properties of bulk metallic glass alloy.

50NML/IPSG/2017/2018/22851 ()2017-04-012018-03-31Ashok KR&DExpress Track(3 Months)Extractive MetallurgyProcess Modeling

Title: Control and analysis of inclusions in semi finished electrical steel - module 3

Abstract: Residual non-metallic inclusions present in liquid steel are one of the causes of process interruptions during transfer of liquid steel, solidification, post processing of solidified steel. Presence of residual non-metallic inclusions also ultimately affects the end properties of the steel. Specific to electrical steel, presence of non-metallic inclusions mostly annoys its performance during magnetization and demagnetization process via, creating barkhaunsen noise. The control of amount, size, morphology and chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions is highly essential to produce extra clean electrical steel. Therefore, one of the major objectives of this module is to perform special refining treatment to control the non-metallic inclusion during liquid steel processing and followed by critical analyses to assess the cleanliness of steel

51NML/IPSG/2017/2018/29923 (OLP 0313)2017-06-012018-03-31Saswati ChakladarR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingPetrography & Process Mineralogy

Title: Influence of Micronization on Mineral Content and Chemical Structure of Indian Coal

Abstract: Abstract: Coal particle size and mineral matter have significant effects on coal combustion. Micronization of coal produces particle size in the range of ≤20 microns which thereby increases the surface area-to-volume ratio enormously. Micronization of coal is proven to be advantageous for improvement of combustion; however, very little information is available for Indian coals in similar perspective. Mechanical comminution to such fine particle size is also believed to effect the chemical structural integrity of coal, which is largely unexplored. Hence, the proposed study on micronization of Indian coals will primarily consist of three elements; 1) Comminution; 2) Demineralization; and 3) Chemical Characterization. To initiate, two distinct coal samples will be characterised through petrographic analysis and SEM-EDS studies. They will be further taken forward for fine milling and detailed organic characterization. Experimentally, density based separation at 0.5 mm size fraction will be adopted initially, the results from which will further dictate the course of project. This novel technique of micronization with its high usefulness in improving boiler efficiency, through ash minimization, would be extremely beneficial to try from Indian industrial perspective. This untried proposed study is believed to provide a detailed correlation of structural and chemical changes micronization would induce in Indian coals, futuristically aiming at improvement of combustion properties. ________________________________________

52NML/IPSG/2017/2018/34617 (OLP 0290)2017-04-012018-03-31Minati Kumari SahuR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationNon-destructive Evaluation

Title: Creep damage assessment in power plant materials using Non linear Ultrasonic Technique

Abstract: Steel pipes are the important structural components of any power plant. Operating under conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high stress, these steels have potential failure locations and limiting life for the entire plant. In addition, once a failure occurs due to creep at high temperature, the analysis team is often confronted with the question: How long will similar components last or when the next inspection be performed? To address these questions, nondestructive evaluation techniques to detect creep damage are needed. The assessment of creep damage in structures (steels) employed in the most of the industries is usually carried out by means of replica metallographic, but the several shortcomings of this method have prompted a search for alternative or complementary non-destructive techniques. Different non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as acoustic emission, infrared thermography, eddy current and linear ultrasonic measurements have been used for the measurement of different types of damage in metals In recent years, non-linear ultrasound has emerged as one of the most reliable technique for non-destructive evaluation of material property degradation, which relies on measuring the higher order harmonics generated by a damage gradient. Recent studies reveals that non-linear ultrasonic measurements are sensitive to subtle damage in a material and can be used to observe damage at an early stage and can be correlated with certain micro-structural changes leading to micro-void nucleation and growth. A greater sensitivity to damage is accessed by monitoring the material by non-linear ultrasonic technique. The objective of this research is to develop a robust experimental procedure to reliably measure the acoustic non linearity parameter using longitudinal waves in both through transmission and pulse echo modes and their correlation with micro structural and mechanical properties in power plant materials to study different stages of creep damage in P92 steel and Inconnel 600 (Inconnel 600 for creep void and NLU parameter correlation)

53NML/IPSG/2017/2018/41052 (OLP 0253)2017-04-012018-03-31SUMANTA BAGUIR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EvaluationMechanical Behaviour of Materials

Title: Creep and creep crack growth behavior of a Nickel base alloy [Module-III]

Abstract: Alloy 617 (Ni-22Cr-12Co-9Mo) is primarily solid-solution strengthened nickel base superalloy. It is one of most promising materials for an advanced ultra-super critical (A-USC) fossil fuel fired boiler for its superior mechanical properties, especially creep resistance. Alloy 617 is planned to use around 700-750°C and >24 MPa pressure in internal piping of different section of A-USC boiler. Hence, studies on deformation behavior of Alloy 617 due to creep between 650-800°C is very much essential. Intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) takes part a critical role in boiler to transfer heat from primary reactor to the relatively cold fluid in secondary reactor. Temperature difference/gradient in primary and secondary legs of IHX often responsible for crack initiation source at critical location and propagate to cause failure diminishing the expected creep rupture life of Alloy 617. Similar situation may occur where failure originates at a stress concentration or at pre-existing defects in the component. Below sub-creep temperature regime, conventional fracture mechanics approach for predicting crack growth behavior under elastic or elastic-plastic condition is well established. Whereas, in creep temperature regime, crack tip parameter must take into account time dependent creep deformation. Hence, creep crack growth behavior of Alloy 617 is equally important to understand failure due to creep resulting from a localized damage. Alloy 617 comprises equiaxed grain of gamma phase, annealing twins, uniformly distributed primary carbides (MC, M2C-type) within the grain and secondary carbides (M23C6-type) within the grain and along the grain boundaries. However, proportion of theses phases changes with thermal exposure. Damage accumulated due to creep in bulk material and localized region (due to presence of a crack) needs quantification for better understanding of high temperature deformation behavior of Alloy 617. Though solid solution strengthening is dominant in Alloy 617, other strengthening mechanism are also important and needs to be identified. The prime objective of this research work in Module III is to finish all remaining creep tests relevant to identify bulk creep deformation mechanism of Alloy 617 at various stress ranges between 650-800°C. Furthermore, quantification of damage in terms of dislocation density measurement, creep void measurement etc. and quantification of phases will be determined in this module. In later modules, investigation will be carried out to determine the effect of pre-existing crack on creep/design life.

54NML/IPSG/2017/2018/43114 (OLP 0251)2017-04-012018-03-31charu singhR&DFull tenure(1 year)Surface EngineeringCorrosion

Title: Studies on corrosion behavior of electrodeposited Ni using ionic liquid on AZ91 and AZ31 Mg alloys.

Abstract: Magnesium is very reactive and corrodes in preference to deposition in the bath which makes it difficult to plate. This is further complicated by the secondary phases present as they cause the galvanic corrosion at very high rate. The proposal aims at to improve the surface suitable for deposition and to enhance the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy by nickel electrodeposition using ionic liquid; To compare this with the other coatings (such as aqueous plating and solgel), sol-gel coatings will also be attempted. The research will also be carried to develop suitable pretreatment for the magnesium surface so that the dissolution can be controlled during ionic liquid electrodeposition as well as sol-gel coating. The suitability of the process shall be established by nickel deposition on pre-treated magnesium surface and their corrosion behaviour.

55NML/IPSG/2017/2018/4546 ()2017-04-012018-03-31KRISHNA KUMARR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyProcess Modeling

Title: Heat transfer modelling of condensation behavior of metal (Mg) vapors during distillation for quantitative analysis of condenser design (module I)

Abstract: 1. Distillation is a separation process which is used to separate the components of a system based on their boiling points and vapor pressures at specific thermodynamic conditions. In metallurgy, distillation may be used as a strong tool to separate, selectively a component from the system by maintaining suitable conditions, at much higher scale than at what it is. A method of condensing magnesium vapor which comprises passing the vapor successively into two or more condensation zones maintained at condensation temperatures respectively above and below the melting temperature of magnesium, whereby the major portion of the vapor is condensed in the first zone directly to a liquid and the remaining vapor is condensed in the second zone as a solid, and combining the condensate from the second zone with that formed in the first zone, where by substantially all the magnesium condensed is recovered in the liquid state. Heat, mass and momentum transport plays a crucial role during condensation phenomena. In this study an integrated condensation heat transfer model for magnesium vapour will be developed based on drop wise and film wise condensation mechanism, which will be primarily validated with literature data and experimental findings. The model is expected to provide guidelines to facilitate computational design analysis of a condenser unit based on simulation study. The experimental set up for the model validation study and understanding of the mechanism of heat transfer will also be designed.

56NML/IPSG/2017/2018/48041 (OLP 0232)2017-04-012018-03-31Madan MR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyProcess Modeling

Title: Modelling of the Inclusion removal by synthetic Slag – A Multi-phase CFD coupled with DEM approach

Abstract: The challenges required by the applications to improve the mechanical and other properties led to improve the cleanliness of the steel. This increasing demand in recent years for high quality steels has considerably affected the steelmaking process practices itself. The non-metallic inclusion plays an important role in the clean steel technology where it has to be minimized or be modified to remove its harmful nature by controlling their morphology, composition and size distribution. The inclusions in the steels are removed by using the synthetic slag. The mechanism of the inclusion removal from the metal to the slag phase is to be assessed in detail to enhance its usability in the treatment of the steel in Ladle. The kinetics of the inclusion removal and the flow behavior in the Ladle plays an important part in increasing the inclusion removal from the steel. A combined approach of the thermodynamics, kinetics and CFD will articulate the maximum inclusion removal with minimum of given time period. In this study, a detailed thermodynamics and kinetics is to be carried out to find best suited synthetic slag for the Al killed steels.

57NML/IPSG/2017/2018/5190 (OLP 0259)2017-04-012018-03-31ASISH KUMAR DATTAR&DExpress Track(3 Months)Materials EvaluationMechanical Behaviour of Materials

Title: Optimization of Hysteretic Dissipation Energy of Moment Resistant Frame for High Rise Steel Structures against Earthquake Excitations for Different Grades of High Tensile Steels: Module III

Abstract: Seismic resistant steel moment resistant frame combine high stiffness in the elastic range with good ductility and energy dissipation capacity in the inelastic range. Under severe cyclic loading, the inelastic deformation is restricted and localized primarily in beam members, which are designed and detailed to sustain large inelastic deformations without significant loss of strength. The beams act as ductile members, dissipating energy through stable hysteretic behavior, while limiting the forces transmitted to the other components in the structure. Furthermore, it is difficult to assess whether the structure can survive another earthquake, since no measure of the cumulative inelastic action that has taken place during an earthquake is usually possible. The present study represents a continued effort towards evaluation of plastic deformation capacities of steel member of high rise structure subjected to cyclic loads from four hypothetical time history frequencies. In ‘Module I & II’ extensive work had been carried out in respect of design philosophy, structural concepts and dynamic responses of high rise steel structures subjected to earthquake forces. A sound methodology had been developed for modeling responses of steel frame structure subjected to earthquake forces for different height to plan by finite element approach. Both CSIR-SERC & BARC, Trombay had expressed their interest for joint venture for a research program of combined analytical and large-scale experimental studies is the concern of this proposal.

58NML/IPSG/2017/2018/51998 (OLP 0308)2017-04-012018-03-31abhishek KumarR&DFull tenure(1 year)Mineral ProcessingBeneficiation

Title: Enhancement of dewatering efficiency of mineral slurry using surface active reagents.

Abstract: Solid liquid separation is an integral part of any mineral processing industry. Ore beneficiation necessarily requires removal of large amounts of water before further processing of concentrated ores. Most of the low grade ores require fine grinding for their liberation of valuable mineral from the gangue during processing. As a result, the mineral grain size decreases. The tendency for water to be trapped on porous surfaces and between particles increases as the size of particles decreases. Water also has a greater difficulty in passing through the interstitial voids, when the particle diameter decreases. Dewatering of fines upto the desired level required for the subsequent operations is difficult to achieve using conventional dewatering techniques. Typical examples of dewatering problem faced by mineral industry includes: - High moisture content of fine iron ore concentrate poses serious problem in pelletization. - Difficulty in Coke making due to the high moisture content of fine clean coal. So this project aims at enhancing the water removal capability during filtration by using certain surface modifier reagents which can modify either particle size or surface chemistry or both. Presently its output will be in terms of basic research but if it succeeds it is expected to be beneficial to the process industry.

59NML/IPSG/2017/2018/58378 (OLP 0285)2017-04-012018-03-31Aarti KumariR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: Separation studies of rare earth metals from the leach liquor of scrap magnet of wind turbines

Abstract: NdFeB magnet is widely used in modern technological equipment especially for clean energy development. The scrap NdFeB magnet containing ~30% of rare earth metals can be utilized as secondary resources of rare earths. Literature survey shows that hydrometallurgical recycling of rare earths elements from scrap NdFeB magnets consumes high concentration of acid and iron is rarely recovered in usable form. Aiming at selective recovery of rare earth elements from scrap NdFeB magnet with minimum consumption of acid, scrap wind turbine magnets were obtained from Regen Powertech Pvt. Limited, a wind energy company of India. In Module I, roasting followed by leaching with 0.5M HCl at 95°C and 100 g/L pulp density, rare earth elements were selectively and quantitatively recovered leaving iron in the leach residue as hematite. The leach solution obtained under optimized condition contained 17 g/L Nd, 3.9 g/L Pr, 0.24 g/L Dy and 0.7 g/L B. Advanced application requires high purity individual rare earth oxides. Therefore, in Module II rare earth elements present in the above leach solution will be separated by solvent extraction/ membrane separation/ precipitation. Various novel and existing commercial/ solvent extractant reagents such as Cyanex 572, Cyphos IL 104, D2EHPA etc. will be tested for their effective separation. Separation condition will be optimized by varying various parameters such as pH, extractant concentration, temperature etc. High pure individual rare earths oxides from the purified solution will be prepared by precipitation. Finally complete process flowsheet will be proposed for the recovery of high pure individual rare earth oxide from the scrap wind turbine magnet.

60NML/IPSG/2017/2018/60653 (OLP 0255)2017-04-012018-03-31Murugesan A PR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringMetal Forming

Title: Thermo -mechanical processing parameters on microstructures and hot deformation behaviour of molybdenum added low carbon micro alloyed steel (Module 3)

Abstract: Abstract Line pipe steels, based on API standard, up to strength level of X70 grade are commercially made and being extensively used as structural material in oil and petroleum industries due to their excellent mechanical properties, like tensile strength, toughness and weldability. Although efforts have been made at industrial as well as laboratory level to develop materials beyond the strength level of X70, there are still no defined rule for composition design and suitable thermo-mechanical controlled processing (TMCP) schedule. The role of addition of Molybdenum (Mo) in low carbon micro-alloyed steel, under influence of deformation schedule around Tnr (Non recrysllaization temperature) finish rolling temperatures on development of beneficial microstructures (bainite, acicular ferrite), flow properties and recrystallization behavior of low carbon micro-alloyed steel, has been studied in last modules. First deformation was carried out at well above austenisation and Tnr temperature i.e 1070°C, while finish deformation temperatures varied from 950°C to 800°C. Molybdenum added steel showed the reduction of grain size i.e finer grain sizes, lower than 5µm, when deformation temperature reduced down to 800°C. However, applying proper finish rolling strategy with right cooling rate is essential to generate desired microstructural product. It is understood from previous work that highest deformation below Tnr and the deformation temperature just above the Ar3 temperature yields finer microstructure. Cooling rate for all deformation schedule was kept constant, 20c/s. Further, cooling rate after final deformation decides predominantly type of different microstructure product (polygonal ferrite. Quasi-gonal ferrite, lower baintie, Martensite-Austenite (M-A product). Therefore, finish deformation temperature below Tnr and cooling rate in addition to the deformation schedule must be carefully chosen to get such a desired final microstructure. The important objective of present module is to study the effect of cooling rate and quantitative analysis of different microstructures of low carbon micro alloyed steels of Gleeble processed samples by SEM-EBSD and TEM techniques extensively.

61NML/IPSG/2017/2018/65790 (OLP 0231)2017-04-012018-03-31CHANDRANI SARKARR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringAdvanced Materials (Structural, Bio, Magnetic) & P

Title: Synthesis of three dimensional hemiporous calcium phosphate blocks as synthetic bone graft

Abstract: The main aim of the proposed research work is to systematically characterize the synthesized bio compatible hemi-porous blocks by using Universal Mechanical testing machine, XRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR, TG/DTA.

62NML/IPSG/2017/2018/69965 (OLP 0319)2017-06-012018-03-31Gopi Kishor MandalR&DFull tenure(1 year)Materials EngineeringSolidification & Casting

Title: Simulation of thin strip casting

Abstract: To compensate the environmental degradation and energy losses, steel plants will need to use new efficient technologies capable of supplying steel strip products of high quality at low cost. Direct strip casting technology has the potential of producing steel strips at a greatly reduced cost. However, there is a high emphasis on improvement in surface quality, geometry and properties of the cast strip. The larger aim is to develop a much wider range of advanced steels from this technology. For this technology, the conditions are drastically different to conventional processing that the solidification and subsequent microstructural evolution is yet not understood. High casting speed and rapid solidification of strips demand an accurate control of process parameters. The main focus of present study is to generate a fundamental knowledge required to develop steels with higher levels of both strength and formability. The high rate of heat extraction from the melt through the rolls results in faster solidification and produces as-cast steel microstructures radically different to those produced by conventional routes. Therefore, in the present investigation, molten steel with desired composition will be cast as thin strips (3-5 mm) in water cooled copper mould in order to obtain coarse grained solidification structure akin to strip cast sheets. The post-solidification microstructure controls the mechanical properties of the final product. Additionally, the challenge for strip casting is the single pass high deformation to achieve the properties. Therefore, the current investigation also aims to establish hot working schedule based on thin strip casting process parameters that will link the recrystallised austenite to the as-cast austenite grain size and deformation conditions.

63NML/IPSG/2017/2018/74328 (OLP 0288)2017-04-012018-03-31Archana KumariR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyHydrometallurgy

Title: STUDIES FOR THE RECOVERY OF LANTHANIDE GROUP METALS FROM PRIMARY AND SECONDARY RESOURCES [Module-II: Leaching studies of Rare Earth Metals from primary (monazite) and secondary (E-waste) resources]

Abstract: In continuation of the previous work (OLP-0288, Module-I) under the EMR-CSIR project for Senior Research Fellowship entitled "STUDIES FOR THE RECOVERY OF LANTHANIDE GROUP METALS FROM PRIMARY AND SECONDARY RESOURCES", which was focused on the pre-treatment studies of the primary ore monazite/ secondaries containing rare earth metals (REMs) and their characterization, the Module-II is focused on the leaching studies of Rare Earth Metals (REMs) from primary (monazite) and secondary (E-waste) resources. Present work is focused on the development of extraction processes for the recovery of REMs from pre-treated monazite and secondary resources (E-waste). After pre-treatment, leaching studies will be carried out to select suitable lixiviant using various leachant such as acids, alkali, complex salts, etc. in atmospheric as well as high pressure temperature conditions. After selecting the suitable leachant and process, further studies will be carried out by varying different process parameters viz. temperature, acid concentration, time, pulp density, particle size, etc. to get suitable condition for effective leaching of REMs. The obtained leach liquor will contain mixed REMs. For getting pure solutions of REMs from obtained leach liquor, further Solvent Extraction (SX)/ Ion-Exchange (IX)/ Cementation/ Precipitation experiments will be carried out in Module-III. From the pure solution of metals, salts/ pure metals can be obtained either by evaporation/ crystallization.

64NML/IPSG/2017/2018/8057 (OLP 0287)2017-04-012018-03-31Ammasi AR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyAgglomeration

Title: Effect of oxygen partial pressure on induration behaviors of carbon added iron oxide pellets and burning behaviour of carbon (different origin) in pellets (Module II)

Abstract: In case of magnetite pellets, change in roasting atmosphere in induration furnace greatly improve the recrystallization and diffusion bond in magnetite pellets because of spontaneous conversion of cubic magnetite to hexagonal hematite lattice , which resulted in increase in cold compressive strength, reducibility index of the pellets and other properties of pellets as well. However, hematite pellet does not get influence with change in oxygen atmosphere due to the highest stable form of iron oxide at standard state. The change in oxygen atmosphere during induration hematite pellet does not affect the induration behaviour of hematite pellets. To improve the quality of hematite pellets and to decrease the energy consumption, certain amount of different carbonaceous materials ((coke, jhama coal and BF flue dust), will be admixed with hematite pellets feed. During induration of carbon added hematite pellets oxidation of carbon produces carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. The ratio of CO and CO2 is depends on activity of carbon, partial pressure of gases particularly oxygen partial pressure, temperature, etc. The generated CO may reduce the iron oxide in hematite in some extent. The reduced iron oxide may deteriorate the pellet quality if recrystallization and re oxidation of reduced iron oxide are not accomplished. The change in oxygen partial pressure may affect the burning behaviour of carbon in pellets and induration mechanism of carbon added hematite pellets may be altered. Therefore, the gas mixture argon and oxygen will be injected into induration furnace strand at appropriate time and temperature to study the burning behaviour of carbon and induration behaviour of hematite pellets. The injection of oxygen in appropriate time and temperature may simulate the magnetite pellets, which mean recrystallization and diffusion bond can be obtained in hematite pellets as well. In present study, different carbonaceous materials such as coke, jhama coal and BF Flue dust will be used in hematite ore pellets as an additive to study the burning characteristics of carbon (different sources) includes oxidation of carbon, start and finish temperature of carbon consumption, quantification of CO and CO2 with partial pressure of oxygen, etc. Induration behaviour of hematite pellet in presence of different source of carbon and optimization and their burning characteristics in induration strand will be studied to enhance the maximum utilization of carbon for in-situ heat generation and minimizing the reduction of iron oxide reduction in pellet by controlling burning behaviour of carbon in pellet. An effect of pO2 on induration behaviour of Fe2O3 of or carbon added iron oxide pellet and burning characteristic/behaviour of carbonaceous materials will be studied to avail the maximum amount of in-situ heat from the carbon, which will help in reducing external energy consumption.

65NML/IPSG/2017/2018/9831 (OLP 0309)2017-04-012018-03-31Dr S K MAITYR&DFull tenure(1 year)Extractive MetallurgyElectrometallurgy

Title: High Temperature Electrolysis for Extraction of Rare Earth Metals

Abstract: The project is submitted under Thematic project proposal in sub area no. 2, REE & PGM category . Rare earth metal comprising of fourteen elements has special significance because of the rich resources of rare earth minerals in India. The demand of elemental rare earth metal is steadily increasing and there is no commercial production in India to fulfill the indigenous demand for nuclear and magnetic applications. The reduction of rare earth chlorides to elemental rare earth metal is a widely adapted process. The high temperature electrolysis of rare earth chloride finds relevant importance because of low operating temperature, less hazardous and less energy intensive process. The main objective of this study is to develop an indigenous technology for the production of rare earth metals ingot from rare earth chlorides by high temperature electrolysis. Initially out of the fourteen rare earth metals, it is targeted to produce neodymium metal (mostly used rare earth metals for magnetic applications among all rare earth metal) by high temperature electrolysis. Based on earlier expertise gained during the study, the future activities for extraction of other elemental rare earth metals will be carried out.